Protective Effect of Thyme Extract on Albino Rats Exposed to Paraquat

Abstract = 755 times | PDF = 561 times

Main Article Content

Nazar M. Shareef Mahmood


Paraquat (PQ), as a frequently used compound in many applications while the  herbal providing is vigorously used in the curing of broad spectrum diseases such as liver disease, the influence of thyme extract or Thymus vulgaris L. (T.vulgaris) and their constituents was previously reported. The main target goal of the present study, is to explore the influence of T.vulgaris extract toward PQ induced toxicity in male albino rats. The current study was conducted on thirty-two (32) male albino rats, they were separated equally and randomly upon four (4) groups, all groups fed normal diet and drunk tap water ad libitum as following; the first group was considered as control. The second group was treated with PQ (0.3ml/rats) orally by needle gavage, the third group as administered with PQ (0.3ml/rats), and 200ml/kg body weight (BW) of T.vulgaris extract orally by needle gavage, the fourth group was administered with 200ml/kg BW of T.vulgaris extract orally by needle gavage. The treatment duration was continued for eight executive days. Paraquat administration showed significant decrease in BW, food intake, liver, kidney weight also PQ increased malondialdehyde (MDA), low density lipoprotein (LDL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and, uric acid (UA) significantly. Therefore, the current results indicate that, the herbicide PQ showed adverse effects through initiation of lipid peroxidation, while T.vulgaris extract produced a significant recovery in ameliorating some aspects of PQ toxicity.


paraquat, T. vulgaris, malondyaldehyde, low density lipoprotein and alkaline phosphatase.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


M. A. Dalvie et al., "Long-term respiratory health effects of the herbicide, paraquat, among workers in the Western Cape," Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 391-396, 1999.
[2] C. Bismuth, R. Garnier, F. Baud, J. Muszynski, and C. Keyes, "Paraquat poisoning," Drug Safety, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 243-251, 1990.
[3] F. C. Vilela, A. D. Bitencourt, L. D. Cabral, L. S. Franqui, R. Soncini, and A. Giusti-Paiva, "Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Sonchus oleraceus in rats," Journal of ethnopharmacology, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 737-741, 2010.
[4] M. Sharifi‐Rad et al., "Phytochemical constituents, biological activities, and health‐promoting effects of the genus Origanum," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 95-121, 2021.
[5] D. Modnicki and M. Balcerek, "Estimation of total polyphenols contents in Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L. commercial samples," Herba Polonica, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 35-42, 2009.
[6] T. Blanco-Ayala, A. Andérica-Romero, and J. Pedraza-Chaverri, "New insights into antioxidant strategies against paraquat toxicity," Free radical research, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 623-640, 2014.
[7] N. L. Taylor, D. A. Day, and A. H. Millar, "Environmental stress causes oxidative damage to plant mitochondria leading to inhibition of glycine decarboxylase," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 45, pp. 42663-42668, 2002.
[8] A. Zain, "The evaluation of the toxic effect of paraquat and its mechanism of action on reproductive system of male rats," Thesis for the degree of Master of Science. 2007 May, 2007.
[9] A. Rustaiyan et al., "Volatile constituents of three Thymus species grown wild in Iran," Planta medica, vol. 66, no. 02, pp. 197-198, 2000.
[10] M. Abd El Kader and N. Mohamed, "Evaluation of protective and antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract on paracetamol-induced toxicity in rats," Australian journal of basic and applied sciences, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 467-474, 2012.
[11] M. A. Suckow, S. H. Weisbroth, and C. L. Franklin, The laboratory rat. Elsevier, 2005.
[12] R. Muslih, O. Al-Nimer, and M. Al-Zamely, "The level of Malondialdehyde after activation with H2O2 and CuSO4) and inhibited by Desferoxamine and Molsidomine in the serum of patients with acute myocardial infection," J. Chem, vol. 5, p. 148, 2002.
[13] C. W. Sharp, A. Ottolenghi, and H. S. Posner, "Correlation of paraquat toxicity with tissue concentrations and weight loss of the rat," Toxicology and applied pharmacology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 241-251, 1972.
[14] M. Khani, P. Motamedi, M. R. Dehkhoda, S. D. Nikukheslat, and P. Karimi, "Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats," Journal of the international society of sports nutrition, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2017.
[15] C. Florkowski, S. Bradberry, G. Ching, and A. Jones, "Acute renal failure in a case of paraquat poisoning with relative absence of pulmonary toxicity," Postgraduate medical journal, vol. 68, no. 802, pp. 660-662, 1992.
[16] P. Lalruatfela, M. Saminathan, R. Ingole, K. Dhama, and M. Joshi, "Toxicopathology of paraquat herbicide in female Wistar rats," Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 523-542, 2014.
[17] J. Barnes, L. Anderson, and J. Phillipson, "Herbal medicines: a guide for healthcare professionals: pharmaceutical press," 2003.
[18] M. Manafi, M. Hedayati, and M. Yari, "The efficacy of Thyme essence on internal organ weights, biochemical traits and mortality of broilers fed aflatoxin B1," International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 286-292, 2014.
[19] T. Tsuchiya, O. Suzuki, and K. Igarashi, "Protective effects of chlorogenic acid on paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats," Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 765-768, 1996.
[20] K. Barabás, L. Szabó, B. Matkovics, and G. Berencsi, "Effects of paraquat on peroxide metabolism enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the rat," General pharmacology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 133-137, 1984.
[21] S. M. Lawlor and N. M. O'Brien, "Modulation of paraquat toxicity by β-carotene at low oxygen partial pressure in chicken embryo fibroblasts," British journal of nutrition, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 133-140, 1997.
[22] F. A. Hassan and A. Awad, "Impact of thyme powder (Thymus vulgaris L.) supplementation on gene expression profiles of cytokines and economic efficiency of broiler diets," Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 15816-15826, 2017.
[23] D. Melchiorri, R. J. Reiter, E. Sewerynek, M. Hara, L. Chen, and G. Nisticò, "Paraquat toxicity and oxidative damage: Reduction by melatonin," Biochemical pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1095-1099, 1996.
[24] A. M. Attia and H. M. Nasr, "Evaluation of the protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium on paraquat intoxicated rats," Slovak Journal of Animal Science, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 180-187, 2009.
[25] S. Garba, A. Adelaiye, and L. Mshelia, "Histopathological and biochemical changes in the rats kidney following exposure to a pyrethroid based mosquito coil," J Appl Sci Res, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1788-93, 2007.
[26] H. Ozkol, Y. Tuluce, N. Dilsiz, and I. Koyuncu, "Therapeutic potential of some plant extracts used in Turkish traditional medicine on streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats," The Journal of membrane biology, vol. 246, no. 1, pp. 47-55, 2013.
[27] C. Ujowundu, L. Nwaogu, F. Ujowundu, N. Oparaeche, and A. Oyarebu, "Hepatotoxicity of paraquat dichloride and ameliorative effect of nutritional supplements," Biochem. Mol. Biol. J, vol. 4, p. 21, 2018.
[28] K. Amirshahrokhi and S. Bohlooli, "Effect of methylsulfonylmethane on paraquat-induced acute lung and liver injury in mice," Inflammation, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1111-1121, 2013.
[29] R. D. Novaes et al., "Acute paraquat exposure determines dose‐dependent oxidative injury of multiple organs and metabolic dysfunction in rats: impact on exercise tolerance," International journal of experimental pathology, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 114-124, 2016.
[30] I. Ahmad et al., "Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of N-acetyl cysteine and silymarin-mediated protection against maneb-and paraquat-induced hepatotoxicity in rats," Chemico-biological interactions, vol. 201, no. 1-3, pp. 9-18, 2013.
[31] L. Radwan Nadia, R. Hassan, E. Qota, and H. Fayek, "Effect of natural antioxidant on oxidative stability of eggs and productive and reproductive performance of laying hens," International Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 134-150, 2008.
[32] H. R. Aboelwafa and H. N. Yousef, "The ameliorative effect of thymol against hydrocortisone-induced hepatic oxidative stress injury in adult male rats," (in eng), Biochem Cell Biol, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 282-9, Aug 2015.