Preparing Your Manuscript

Manuscript Structure

Authors must follow the below manuscript structure and the required formatting per KJAR template.

Title page
- The title of the manuscript should be brief but informative, as it may be used in information-retrieval systems.
- Avoid abbreviations where possible.

- The abstract should not exceed 250 words, and it has to be a single paragraph, and should follow the style of structured abstracts, but without headings summarizing the objective, method, results, and conclusion of the study. It should be informative and not include descriptive words or citations. Together with the title, the abstract should serve as an index for the subjects covered in the paper and be suitable for indexing purposes.
- Abstract must be self-contained, without abbreviations, footnotes, or references. It should be a microcosm of the full article.
- Abstract must be written as one paragraph and should not contain displayed mathematical equations or tabular material.

- Authors should provide 5 to 8 keywords that accurately describe the manuscript for indexing purposes and common within the subject discipline.

- The introduction should provide background information that is accessible to readers from outside the field and explain the rationale behind the study.
- It should also include two to three paragraphs about relevant literature.
- It should include a paragraph to tell the readers why you felt it was important to publish this manuscript or to list the contribution of the paper
- It should include the layout of the manuscript.
- In-text citations to previous publications are to appear in sequential numeric order beginning with “1,” the first time that the reference is cited. Cited reference numbers are to be depicted using Arabic numerals, and must appear in parentheses either immediately after mention of the reference or its author/s in the sentence, or at the end of the sentence prior to the period ending the sentence.

Related Work
- Optional sections for computer science, engineering, or agriculture, or relevant per article's type

Materials and methods
- The methods section should provide enough detail for an independent researcher to reproduce the study. If methods have been previously published, they can be summarized with a reference.

The results should be presented clearly and concisely in a logical sequence, supported by figures and/or tables. It should include the interpretation and experimental conclusions that can be drawn. 

- The discussion section should emphasize on the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with previous studies, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results. It may also include the limitations of the study as well as future study directions. In some cases, a combined results and discussion section may be appropriate.

- The conclusion should be short and to the point, summarizing the main findings of the study. The authors should avoid repeating the results and discussion.

- Illustrations should be referred to as Figure 1, using Arabic numerals. 
- All figures must be original, unless indicated otherwise and accompanied with permission to reproduce from the copyright holder (check journal policy)
- Provide figure caption at the bottom of the figure.
- A caption should be self-contained and consist of a brief title and a concise description of the illustration.
- All symbols and abbreviations used should be explained.
- Figures should be embedded within the body text, do not keep at the end of the manuscript

- List your tables here in sequential order from Table 1 to Table N.
- Use plain black and white lines, without shading or special fonts.
- Draw tables instead of embedding screenshots of tables.
- Tables should fall within the margin of the manuscript.
- Tables should be embedded within the body text, do not keep at the end of the manuscript

Mathematical equations 
- Ensure that mathematical equations are submitted in an editable format and not as images.
- Include any equations and mathematical expressions in the main text of the paper.
- Identify equations that are referred to in the text by parenthetical numbers, such as (1), and refer to them in the manuscript as "equation (1)" etc.

KJAR is using IEEE style (Font-size 8pt) make sure to follow the below examples, it is recommended to use citation management tools such Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote, or Online citation. In-text citations (e.g., [2]) should be arranged in the order in which they appear in the text. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).

[1]      A. Bonnaccorsi, “On the Relationship between Firm Size and Export Intensity,” Journal of International Business Studies, XXIII (4), pp. 605-635, 1992. (journal style)
[2]      R. Caves, Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982. (book style)
[3]      Clerc, “The Swarm and the Queen: Towards a Deterministic and Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), pp. 1951-1957, 1999. (conference style)
[4]      H. Crokell, “Specialization and International Competitiveness,” in Managing the Multinational Subsidiary, H. Etemad and L. S, Sulude (eds.), Croom-Helm, London, 1986. (book chapter style)
[5]      K. Deb, S. Agrawal, A. Pratab, T. Meyarivan, “A Fast Elitist Non - dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms for Mult objective Optimization: NSGA II,” KanGAL report 200001, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, 2000. (technical report style)
[6]      J. Geralds, "Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,", para. 2, Jan. 31, 2001. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 12, 2004]. (General Internet site)

All the submitted manuscripts are screened for plagiarism through the iThenticate software. The authors are encouraged to use paraphrasing and summarizing technics and sources should be cited appropriately.  Any attempt of plagiarism shall be followed by the rejection of the submitted manuscript.  KJAR tolerates 10% of similarity.

Cover Letter Structure

Authors and Affiliations
The corresponding author should write all the co-authors and provide their full names, email, phone number, exact affiliations (department name, university name, city, country), and ORCiD ID per author.

KJAR follows the CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) guidelines. Accordingly, all authors should meet authorship criteria and make substantial contributions to the work, including taking part in the concept and design of the study, methodology, data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of the data, writing the first draft, writing, reviewing, and editing, supervision, and study administration. It is expected that all authors will have reviewed, discussed and agreed to their individual contributions as shared by the submitting author.

Data availability
Authors are required to add statements that describe how readers can access the data or code supporting the reported results. Raw data supporting the findings should be available for the reviewers and editors when requested.

Conflicts of interest
Authors must declare all relevant interests that could be perceived as conflicting. Authors should explain why each interest may represent a conflict. If no conflicts exist, please state "The authors declare no conflict of interest." Submitting authors are responsible for coauthors declaring their interests.

Funding statement
Authors must state how the research and publication of their article were funded, by naming the financially supporting body(s) (written out in full) followed by the associated grant number(s) in square brackets (if applicable), for example: “This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the National Science Foundation [grant number zzzz]; and a Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant”. If the study received no funding, please add: “This research received no external funding.”  

All acknowledgements (if any) should be included at the very end of the manuscript before the references. Anyone who made a contribution to the research or manuscript, but who is not a listed author, should be acknowledged (with their permission).