Peri Cholecystectomy Bile Analysis for Fasciola hepatica Eggs in Sulaimani Teaching Hospital

Abstract = 178 times | PDF = 102 times

Main Article Content

Seerwan Hama Shareef Taher Abdullah Hawramy Osman jamal nasrulla Karwn Hama amin Dara Ahmed Mohammed Raz Seerwan Hama

Abstract

Fascioliasis is one of the oldest zoonotic infestations, which returned back to 3000 years B.C., it is caused by Fasciola hepatica or gigantica. It is a widespread disease throughout the world; nearly (2.4 – 17) millions of people is infected. Human is an accidental final host by ingestion of contaminated plants and water by metacircaria. Most of patients suffer from right upper abdominal pain with eosinophilia. Diagnosis is made on clinical background with imaging studies or laboratory (like stool and examinations biliary aspirate, intradermal test or ELISA to detect antibody). It must be taken into consideration as newly emerging infestation in our country. The aim of this study is to highlight on the magnitude of Peri Cholecystectomy Bile Analysis for Fasciola hepatica in Sulaimani province, Kurdistan region and even in Iraq as a whole. A prospective study was performed at Sulaimani Teaching Hospital. Bile samples were collected from who had cholecystectomy. Microscopical analysis was archived for finding egg of the parasite. In 129 samples, there were 7 (5.4%) positive cases of Fasciola hepatica 2 were adult worms, all were swimming in the gall bladder. 5 (3.9%) out of 7 (5.4%) samples were females and only 2 (1.5%) of cases were males.  4 (3.1%) out of 7 were from Sharazur terrain, and 3 (2.3%) of them from the center of Sulaimani city.  Fascioliasis is a zoonotic problem. It must be put in differential diagnosis of any vague upper abdominal pain. It is a public health issue, so health worker must give awareness to the society about this disease, which is more easily preventable.

Keywords

Fasciola hepatica, bile analysis in Fascioliasis, liver fluke, diagnosis of liver flukes

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References

[1] K Dittmar, WR Teegen, “The presence of Fasciola hepatica (Liver-fluke) in humans and cattle from a 4,500 year old archaeological site in the Saale-Unstrut Valley, Germany,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 98, pp. 141-3, 2003.
[2] A Araújo, KJ Reinhard, LF Ferreira, “The role of mummy studies in paleoparasitology,” Chungará (Arica), 32 (1), pp. 111-5, 2000.
[3] L Szidat, “On the preservation of helminth eggs in pre-and early historical bog corpses,’ Ztschr f Parasitenk, 13, pp. 265-74, 1944.
[4] Paniker CJ, “Trematodes: Flukes Textbook of medical parasitology,” Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 2007.
[5] S Mas-Coma, MD Bargues, MA Valero, ‘Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses,” International journal for parasitology, 35 (11), pp. 1255-78, 2005.
[6] World Health Organization. Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: first WHO report on neglected tropicaldiseases, pp. 172, 2010.
[7] T Hawrami, “liver fluke causing Dilatation of Common Bile Duct,” Basrah Journal of Surgery, pp. 103-4, 2004.
[8] RF Ezzat, TA Karboli, KA Kasnazani, AM Hamawandi, “Endoscopic management of biliary fascioliasis: a case report,” J Med Case Rep, 4, pp. 83, 2010.
[9] T Hawrami, “Case report: Fasciola hepatica worm swims in the Gallbladder,” Zanco J Med Sci, 14 (2), pp. 1-4, 2010.
[10] K Ashrafi, F Saadat, S O’NEILL, B Rahmati, HA Tahmasbi, JP Dalton, et al., “The endemicity of human fascioliasis in Guilan Province, Northern Iran: the baseline for implementation of control strategies,” Iranian journal of public health, 44 (4), pp. 501-11, 2015.
[11] A Kabaalioğlu, A Apaydın, T Sindel, E Lüleci, “US-guided gallbladder aspiration: a new diagnostic method for biliary fascioliasis,” European radiology, 9 (5), pp. 880-2, 1999 May.
[12] Marcos L, Terashima A, Gotuzzo E, “In Jarnagin WR. Blumgart's Surgery of the Liver, Pancreas and Biliary Tract: Expert Consult-Online,’ Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012.
[13] Keiser J, Utzinger J. Emerging foodborne trematodiasis. Emerging infectious diseases. 2005 Oct 1;11(10):1507.
[14] AN Haseeb, AM El-Shazly, MA Arafa, AT Morsy, “A review on fascioliasis in Egypt,’ Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 32 (1), pp. 317-54, 2002.
[15] ML Kang, CH Teo, GK Wansaicheong, DM Giron, A Wilder, “Fasciola hepatica in a New Zealander traveler,” Journal of travel medicine, 15 (3), pp. 196-9, 2008.
[16] T Hawrami, K Saeed, S Qaradaghy, T Karboli, BF Nore, NH Bayati, “Sporadic incidence of Fascioliasis detected during Hepatobiliary procedures: A study of 18 patients from Sulaimaniyah governorate,” BMC research notes, 5 (1), pp. 691, 2012.
[17] World Health Organization (WHO), “Control of foodborne trematode infections: report of a WHO study group,” WHO Technical Report Series, pp. 849, 2007.
[18] LA Marcos, M Tagle, A Terashima, A Bussalleu, C Ramirez, C Carrasco, et al., “Natural history, clinicoradiologic correlates, and response to triclabendazole in acute massive fascioliasis,” The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 78 (2), pp. 222-7, 2008.
[19] LA Marcos, A Terashima, E Gotuzzo, “Update on hepatobiliary flukes: fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis,” Current opinion in infectious diseases, 21 (5), pp. 523-30, 2008.
[20] R Saba, M Korkmaz, D Inan, L Mamikoğlu, Ö Turhan, F Günseren, et al., “Human fascioliasis,” Clinical microbiology and infection, 10 (5), pp. 385-7, 2004.
[21] JM Behar, JS Winston, R Borgstein, “Hepatic fascioliasis at a London hospital—the importance of recognising typical radiological features to avoid a delay in diagnosis,” The British journal of radiology, 2014.
[22] L Marcos, V Maco, A Terashima, F Samalvides, JR Espinoza, E Gotuzzo, “Fascioliasis in relatives of patients with Fasciola hepatica infection in Peru,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 47 (4), pp. 219-22, 2005.
[23] JK Fullerton, M Vitale, GC Vitale,” Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the treatment of Fasciola hepatica presenting as biliary obstruction,” Surgical innovation, 13 (3), 179-82, 2006.
[24] S ÜNAL, F BATMAN, Y BAYRAKTAR, “Fasciola hepatica infection: clinical and computerized tomographic findings of ten patients,” Turk J Gastroenterol, 17 (1), pp. 40-5, 2006.
[25] SS Rana, DK Bhasin, M Nanda, K Singh, “Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract,” Current gastroenterology reports, 9 (2), pp. 156-64, 2007.
[26] LA Marcos, V Maco, A Terashima, F Samalvides, E Miranda, M Tantalean, et al., “Hiperendemicidad de Fasciolosis humana en el Valle del Mantaro, Perú: Factores de riesgo de la infección por Fasciola hepatica,” Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú, 24 (2), pp. 158-642004.
[27] Y Bafandeh, D Daghestani, S Rad, “Biliary tract obstruction due to fasciola hepatica managed by ERCP,” Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 28 (1), pp. 43-5, 2015.
[28] A Dobrucali, R Yigitbasi, Y Erzin, O Sunamak, E Polat, H Yakar, “Fasciola hepatica infestation as a very rare cause of extrahepatic cholestasis,” World journal of gastroenterology: WJG, 10 (20), pp. 3076-7, 2004.
[29] O Sezgın, E Altintaş, A Tombak, E Uçbılek, “Fasciola hepatica-induced acute pancreatitis: report of two cases and review of the literature,” The Turkish journal of gastroenterology: the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology, 21 (2), pp. 183-7, 2010.
[30] MA Valero, N Girones, MA Garcia-Bodelon, MV Periago, I Chico-Calero, M Khoubbane, et al., “Anaemia in advanced chronic fasciolosis,” Acta tropica, 108 (1), pp. 35-43, 2008.
[31] M Almendras-Jaramillo, J Rivera-Medina, J Seijas-Mogrovejo, K Almendras-Jaramillo, “Hepatic fascioliasis in children: uncommon clinical manifestations,” Arquivos de gastroenterologia, 34 (4), 241-7, 1996.
[32] D Heredia, JM Bordas, F Mondelo, J Rodes, “Gallbladder fascioliasis in a patient with liver cirrhosis,” Medicina clínica, 82 (17), pp. 768, 1984.
[33] S Sanchez-Sosa, “Massive hepatobiliaryfascioliasis,” Rev GastroenterolMex, 65, pp. 179-183, 2000.
[34] H Losada, M Hirsch, P Guzmán, F Fonseca, E Hofmann, M Alanís, “Fascioliasis simulating an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma—Case report with imaging and pathology correlation,” Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition, 4 (1), pp. E1, 2015.
[35] A Cosme, E Ojeda, G Cilla, J Torrado, L Alzate, X Beristain, et al., “Fasciola hepatica. study of a series of 37 patients,” Gastroenterologia y hepatologia, 24 (8), pp. 375-80, 2001.
[36] AM Espino, A Díaz, A Pérez, CM Finlay, “Dynamics of antigenemia and coproantigens during a human Fasciola hepatica outbreak,” Journal of clinical microbiology, 36 (9), pp. 2723-6, 1998.
[37] JR Espinoza, O Timoteo, P Herrera-Velit, “Fas2-ELISA in the detection of human infection by Fasciola hepatica,” Journal of helminthology, 79 (03), pp. 235-40, 2005.
[38] JR Espinoza, V Maco, L Marcos, S Saez, V Neyra, A Terashima, et al., “Evaluation of Fas2-ELISA for the serological detection of Fasciola hepatica infection in humans,” The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 76 (5), pp. 977-82, 2007.
[39] A Cosme, E Ojeda, M Poch, L Bujanda, A Castiella, J Fernández, “Sonographic findings of hepatic lesions in human fascioliasis,” Journal of clinical ultrasound. 31 (7), 358-63, 2003.
[40] P Bonniaud, C Barthélémy, C Veyret, JC Audigier, H Fraisse, “Ultrasound aspect of fascioliasis of the biliary tract, Journal de radiologie,” 65 (8-9), pp. 589-91, 1983.
[41] M González-Carbajal, Á Elvírez, S Lazo, D Pupo, W Haedo, LC Izaguirre, “Imagenología y fasciolasis de vías biliares: Reporte de 4 casos,” Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú, 21 (3), pp. 234-8, 2001.
[42] JD MacLean, FM Graeme-Cook, “Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital weekly clinicopathological exercises: case 12-2002—a 50-year-old man with eosinophilia and flctuating hepatic lesions,” N Engl J Med, 346, pp. 1232-9, 2002.
[43] D Loja, J Alvizuri, M Vilca, R Avilés, M Sánchez, “Hematoma hepático subcapsular por fasciola,” Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú, 23 (2), pp. 142-8, 2003.
[44] KA Kim, HK Lim, SH Kim, WJ Lee, JH Lim, “Necrotic granuloma of the liver by human fascioliasis: imaging findings,” Abdominal imaging, 24 (5), pp. 462-4, 1999.
[45] CM Noyer, CM Coyle, C Werner, J Dupouy-Camet, HB Tanowitz, M Wiitner, “Hypereosinophilia and liver mass in an immigrant,” The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 66 (6), pp. 774-6, 2002.
[46] H Orlent, D Selleslag, S Vandecasteele, “Clinical challenges and images in GI. Fasciola hepatica infection and Von Hippel-Lindau disease type 1 with pancreatic and renal involvement,” Gastroenterology, 132 (1), pp. 15-6, 2007.
[47] A Kabaalioğlu, M Cubuk, U Şenol, C Cevikol, K Karaali, A Apaydin, et al., “Fascioliasis: US, CT, and MRI findings with new observations,” Abdominal imaging, 25 (4), pp. 400-4, 2000.
[48] M Parkinson, SM O'neill, JP Dalton, “Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano,” Epidemiology and Infection, 135 (04), pp. 669-74, 2007.
[49] T Hawrami, O Nassrullah, K Seerwan, “Histological detection of Fasciola larva stage in snail in Sulaimani – Kurdistan – Iraq,” Assiut Vet. Med, 59 (138), pp. 27-31, 2013.
[50] A Nakeeb, AG Comuzzie, L Martin, GE Sonnenberg, D Swartz-Basile, AH Kissebah, et al., “Gallstones: genetics versus environment,” Annals of surgery, 235 (6), pp. 842-9, 2002.
[51] TH Le, N Van De, T Agatsuma, D Blair, J Vercruysse, P Dorny, et al, “Molecular confirmation that Fasciola gigantica can undertake aberrant migrations in human hosts,” Journal of clinical microbiology, 45 (2), pp. 648-50, 2007.
[52] M Moghadami, M Mardani “Fasciola hepatica: a cause of obstructive jaundice in an elderly man from Iran,” Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, 14 (4), pp. 208, 2008.
[53] JR Pulperio, V Armesto, J Varela, J Corredoria, “Fasciolaisis: finding in 15 patients,” Br J Radio, 64, pp. 798-801, 1991.
[54] CS Graham, SB Brodie, PF Weller “Imported Fasciola hepatica infection in the United States and treatment with triclabendazole,” Clinical infectious diseases, 33 (1), pp. 1-5, 2001.
[55] FG Gil, MC Jiménez, RT Perea, JJ Ruiz-Capillas, “Fasciolasis hepatobiliar sin eosinophilia,” Revista clinica espanola, 206 (9), pp. 464, 2006.