Soybean (Glycine max L.) Yield and Yield Component Under Different Planting Time and Foliar Application of Humic Acid
- Soybean, foliar Humic acid, Sowing period
Copyright (c) 2023 Shara Salih Ali, Chnar Hama Noori Mirza
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
A triplicate field experiment laid out in randomized complete block design was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of humic acid rates (HAR) at Bakrajo, Sulaimani which is (located at 35°32'52.8"N and 45°21'16.6"E) belongs to Kurdistan region of Iraq with the silty clay soil type. Five different Humic Acid rates (HAR) which were (0 (control), 2,4,6,8 g/L) and two cultivation period (CP) which were cultivation Period 1 (CP1) on 15 May 2022 and cultivation Period 2 (CP2) on 1st of June 2022. The effect of foliar Humic acid rates application methods was highly significant on the Pod No./ Plant, Empty Pod/Plant, Seed Weight / Plant (g) and yield (kg/ha) and significant on the 1000 Seed Weight (g). While, the effect of cultivation period (CP) was highly significant only for the Pod No./ Plant and the insignificantly affected the other parameters including Empty Pod/Plant, Seed No./ Pod, 1000 Seed Weight (g), Weight / Plant (g) and yield (kg/ha). The maximum Pod No./ Plant, Empty Pod/Plant, Seed Weight / Plant (g) and yield (kg/ha) and significant on the 1000 Seed Weight (g) were observed under foliar application of HAR of 6 g/L and the best cultivation period for sowing humic acid was (CP1) which was on 15 May.
 M. Miransari, H. Riahi, F. Eftekhar, A. Minaie, and D. Smith, "Improving soybean (Glycine max L.) N 2 fixation under stress," Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, vol. 32, pp. 909-921, 2013.
 K. N. Devi, L. N. K. Singh, M. S. Singh, S. B. Singh, and K. K. Singh, "Influence of sulphur and boron fertilization on yield, quality, nutrient uptake and economics of soybean (Glycine max) under upland conditions," Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 4, p. 1, 2012.
 X.-P. Song, M. C. Hansen, P. Potapov, B. Adusei, J. Pickering, M. Adami, A. Lima, V. Zalles, S. V. Stehman, and C. M. Di Bella, "Massive soybean expansion in South America since 2000 and implications for conservation," Nature sustainability, vol. 4, pp. 784-792, 2021.
 A. A. Awad, A. B. El-Taib, A. A. Sweed, and A. A. Omran, "Nutrient contents and productivity of Triticum aestivum plants grown in clay loam soil depending on humic substances and varieties and their interactions," Agronomy, vol. 12, p. 705, 2022.
 R. Matuszak-Slamani, R. Bejger, M. W?odarczyk, D. Kulpa, M. Sienkiewicz, D. Go??biowska, E. Skórska, and A. Ukalska-Jaruga, "Effect of humic acids on soybean seedling growth under polyethylene-glycol-6000-induced drought stress," Agronomy, vol. 12, p. 1109, 2022.
 R. Lal, "Enhancing crop yields in the developing countries through restoration of the soil organic carbon pool in agricultural lands," Land degradation & development, vol. 17, pp. 197-209, 2006.
 Y. Li, N. Bai, Z. Tao, X. Mi, G. He, and Z. Wang, "Rethinking application of animal manure for wheat production in China," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 318, p. 128473, 2021.
 B. Vanlauwe, J. Wendt, and J. Diels, "Combined application of organic matter and fertilizer," Sustaining soil fertility in West Africa, vol. 58, pp. 247-279, 2001.
 M. Turan, M. Ekinci, R. Kul, A. Kocaman, S. Argin, A. M. Zhirkova, I. V. Perminova, and E. Yildirim, "Foliar Applications of humic substances together with Fe/nano Fe to increase the iron content and growth parameters of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)," Agronomy, vol. 12, p. 2044, 2022.
 P. S. Bindraban, C. Dimkpa, L. Nagarajan, A. Roy, and R. Rabbinge, "Revisiting fertilisers and fertilisation strategies for improved nutrient uptake by plants," Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 51, pp. 897-911, 2015.
 S. Wei, Z. Li, Y. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Ge, and Z. Li, "A comprehensive review on biomass humification: Recent advances in pathways, challenges, new applications, and perspectives," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 170, p. 112984, 2022.
 S. T. Khan, S. F. Adil, M. R. Shaik, H. Z. Alkhathlan, M. Khan, and M. Khan, "Engineered nanomaterials in soil: Their impact on soil microbiome and plant health," Plants, vol. 11, p. 109, 2022.
 R. Lotfi, H. Kalaji, G. Valizadeh, E. Khalilvand Behrozyar, A. Hemati, P. Gharavi-Kochebagh, and A. Ghassemi, "Effects of humic acid on photosynthetic efficiency of rapeseed plants growing under different watering conditions," Photosynthetica, vol. 56, pp. 962-970, 2018.
 G. Ceronio, J. van Tonder, and C. du Preez, "Is application of commercial potassium humates beneficial to soil and wheat?," South African Journal of Plant and Soil, vol. 39, pp. 123-131, 2022.
 S. Fal, A. Aasfar, A. Ouhssain, H. Choukri, A. Smouni, and H. El Arroussi, "Aphanothece sp. as promising biostimulant to alleviate heavy metals stress in Solanum lycopersicum L. by enhancing physiological, biochemical, and metabolic responses," Scientific Reports, vol. 13, p. 6875, 2023.
 M. Halpern, A. Bar-Tal, M. Ofek, D. Minz, T. Muller, and U. Yermiyahu, "The use of biostimulants for enhancing nutrient uptake," Advances in agronomy, vol. 130, pp. 141-174, 2015.
 M. Sincik, A. T. Göksoy, and M. Turan, "How growth dynamics affect soybean development across cultural practices," Soybean-Applications and Technology. Ed: Tzi-Bun, NG, Intech Open Access Publishing, Crotoria, pp. 37-54, 2011.
 M. Borowska and J. Prusi?ski, "Effect of soybean cultivars sowing dates on seed yield and its correlation with yield parameters," Plant, Soil and Environment, vol. 67, pp. 360-366, 2021.
 S. Naeve, B. Potter, S. Quiring, T. O’Neil, and J. Kurle, "Influence of soybean plant population and row spacing on development and yield across planting dates in Minnesota," Avail-able at-www. soybeans. umn. edu/pdfs/2004asaposter_1_s pacing planting_screen. pdf (verified 11 Dec. 20 07). Un iv. of M in nesot a, Minneapolis, 2004.
 M. Rehman, T. Khaliq, A. Ahmad, S. A. Wajid, F. Rasul, J. Hussain, and S. Hussain, "Effect of planting time and cultivar and soybean performance in semi–arid Punjab, Pakistan," Global J. Sci. Front. Res. Agric. Vet, vol. 14, pp. 41-45, 2014.
 A. G. Kantolic and G. A. Slafer, "Photoperiod sensitivity after flowering and seed number determination in indeterminate soybean cultivars," Field Crops Research, vol. 72, pp. 109-118, 2001.
 R. Xiong, S. Liu, M. J. Considine, K. H. Siddique, H. M. Lam, and Y. Chen, "Root system architecture, physiological and transcriptional traits of soybean (Glycine max L.) in response to water deficit: A review," Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 172, pp. 405-418, 2021.
 D. B. Egli and W. P. Bruening, "Potential of early?maturing soybean cultivars in late plantings," Agronomy Journal, vol. 92, pp. 532-537, 2000.
 J. T. Vogel, W. Liu, P. Olhoft, S. J. Crafts-Brandner, J. C. Pennycooke, and N. Christiansen, "Soybean yield formation physiology–a foundation for precision breeding based improvement," Frontiers in plant science, vol. 12, p. 719706, 2021.
 D. Green, E. Pinnell, L. Cavanah, and L. Williams, "Effect of planting date and maturity date on soybean seed quality 1," Agronomy Journal, vol. 57, pp. 165-168, 1965.
 N. W. W. Ort, M. J. Morrison, E. R. Cober, D. McAndrew, and Y. Lawley, "A comparison of soybean maturity groups for phenology, seed yield, and seed quality components between eastern Ontario and southern Manitoba," Canadian Journal of Plant Science, vol. 102, pp. 812-822, 2022.
 D. Desclaux and P. Roumet, "Impact of drought stress on the phenology of two soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) cultivars," Field Crops Research, vol. 46, pp. 61-70, 1996.
 M. Farooq, M. Hussain, A. Wahid, and K. Siddique, "Drought stress in plants: an overview," Plant responses to drought stress: From morphological to molecular features, pp. 1-33, 2012.
 L. Boros, A. Wawer, and K. Borucka, "The level and stability of yielding soybean varieties of different earliness in various agroclimatic conditions," Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Ro?lin, vol. 285, pp. 283-284, 2019.
 S. Trevisan, A. Botton, S. Vaccaro, A. Vezzaro, S. Quaggiotti, and S. Nardi, "Humic substances affect Arabidopsis physiology by altering the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism, growth and development," Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol. 74, pp. 45-55, 2011.
 S. Nardi, D. Pizzeghello, A. Muscolo, and A. Vianello, "Physiological effects of humic substances on higher plants," Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 34, pp. 1527-1536, 2002.
 M. Ashraf, N. Saqib, and T. Sarfraz, "Biological effect of biofertilizer humic acid on Mung beans (Vigna radiate L.)," Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, vol. 2, pp. 737-739, 2005.
 S. Hu and R. Wang, "A study on the effect of Komix," Humic acid containing organic fertilizer, on spring soybean. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis, vol. 23, pp. 463-466, 2001.
 M. Farooq, N. Gogoi, S. Barthakur, B. Baroowa, N. Bharadwaj, S. S. Alghamdi, and K. H. Siddique, "Drought stress in grain legumes during reproduction and grain filling," Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, vol. 203, pp. 81-102, 2017.
 A. R. Khan and S. Mir, "Plant growth stimulation of lignite humic acid part-ii effect of lig nite derived ammonium humate on wheat (triticum aestivum-v) c rop using different levels of phosphate fertilizer," Biological Sciences-PJSIR, vol. 45, pp. 273-276, 2002.
 K. Vanitha and S. Mohandass, "Effect of humic acid on plant growth characters and grain yield of drip fertigated aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.)," The bioscan, vol. 9, pp. 45-50, 2014.
 M. Atak and M. Kaya, "Effects of zinc and humic acid applications on yield and yield components of durum wheat," Anadolu, vol. 14, pp. 49-66, 2004.
 A. Nikbakht, M. Kafi, M. Babalar, Y. P. Xia, A. Luo, and N.-a. Etemadi, "Effect of humic acid on plant growth, nutrient uptake, and postharvest life of gerbera," Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 31, pp. 2155-2167, 2008.
 M. Tahir, M. Khurshid, M. Khan, M. Abbasi, and M. Kazmi, "Lignite-derived humic acid effect on growth of wheat plants in different soils," Pedosphere, vol. 21, pp. 124-131, 2011.
 A. Solaiman, D. Hossain, and M. G. Rabbani, "Influence of Rhizobium inoculant and mineral nitrogen on some chickpea varieties," Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology, vol. 24, pp. 146-150, 2007.
 S. Thenmozhi, S. Natarajan, and G. Selvakumari, "Effect of humic acid on quality parameters of groundnut," Crop Research, vol. 27, pp. 210-213, 2004.
 M. Sarir, M. Akhlaq, A. Zeb, and M. Sharif, "Comparison of various organic manures with or without chemicalfertilizers on the yield and components of maize," Sarhad Journal of Agriculture (Pakistan), 2005.
 H. Ilahi, K. Hidayat, M. Adnan, F. Rehman, R. Tahir, M. S. Saeed, S. W. A. Shah, and M. D. Toor, "Accentuating the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on agriculture crop production: A review," Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci, vol. 9, pp. 36-45, 2020.
 F. Odeleye, O. Odeleye, and M. Animashaun, "Effects of nutrient foliar spray on soybean growth and yield (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) in south west Nigeria," Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, vol. 35, p. 22, 2007.