Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Health Care Workers in Sulaimani Health Facilities in Relation to Medical Waste Management

Abstract = 37408 times | PDF = 1058 times

Main Article Content

Sarko Masood Mohammed Nasih Othman Ali hattem Hussein Kamal Jalal Rashid


Medical waste management is of crucial importance in health care facilities (HCF). In the present study, we assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices of medical waste management in an HCF of Sulaimani city, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we collected information on waste management practices from health care professionals (HCP) in 14 public and private hospitals and 10 primary health care centers of the city. Based on answers, total knowledge score on a 10-point scale was established. A total of 406 HCPs (of those, 261 women), average age 37.3 (SD ± 9.4) years participated. Just 20.3% have been trained on medical waste management. The total knowledge score ranged from 0 to 9 with a mean of 4.7 (SD ± 1.8).  Factors which were significantly associated with the better knowledge score was male gender, having a high educational degree, being trained in waste management and has been in service for more than 5 years. 68% of HCPs followed the color coding system, 91% always/frequently disposed used sharps/needles to safety boxes, 79% always or frequently recapped needles, 49% reported experiencing at least one needle prick injury during their work but only 37% of them had reported the injury to a supervisor and only 4% of those injured had filled an injury form. There is a low average level of knowledge and the unsafe risky practices are quite prevalent in HCFs. Provision of appropriate training on dealing with medical waste is essential to promote safe practices among HCFs.


Medical waste management, health staff, recapped needles, training, KAP, Iraq


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] A. Prüss, E. Giroult, P. Rushbrook, “Safe management of wastes from health-care activities,” World Health Organization, 2014.
[2] World Health Organization, Joint FAO/NACA/WHO, “Study Group on Food Safety Issues report of a joint FAO/NACA/WHO study group,” World Health Organization, 1999.
[3] SA. Tabish, “Hospital Infection Control: Conceptual Framework,” Academa Publishers,” Ecohealth: Management of Biomedical Waste, pp. 139–145, 2005.
[4] YW. Cheng, FC. Sung, YC. Yang, YH. Lo, YT. Chung and KC. Li, “Medical waste production at hospitals and associated factors,” Journal of Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 440-444, 2009.
[5] P Stanley, “The Earth Summit: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED),” London: Graham & Trotman, 1993.
[6] A. Pruss, E. Giroult and P. Rushbrook, “Safe management of waste from health activities,” Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999.
[7] E. Weir, “Hospital and the environment. Journal of Canadian Medical Association,” vol. 166, pp. 354-369, 2002.
[8] FJ. Aukour, “Healthcare Waste Management in Jordan King Abdullah University Hospital case study,” J. Sci. Med Eng, vol. 20(1), pp. 61-77, 2008.
9] M. Marki, A. Dnane, "Medical Waste Management: A Case Study of the Souss-Massa-Drâa Region, Morocco," 2013.
[10] M. Marki, A. Dnane, "Medical Waste Management: A Case Study of the Souss-Massa-Drâa Region, Morocco," 2013.
[11] L. Muhwezi, P. Kaweesa, F. Kiberu, & I. Eyoku, “Health Care Waste Management in Uganda-A Case Study of Soroti Regional Referral Hospital,” International Journal of Waste Management and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 1 – 12, 2014.
[12] M. Azage, A. Kumie, “Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case of health centers in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 24(2), 2010.
[13] S. Rasheed, S. Iqbal, LA. Baig, K. Mufti, “Hospital Waste Management in theTeaching Hospitals of Karachi,” JPMA, vol. 55, pp.192, 2005.
[14] F. Abdulla, HA. Qdais, A. Rabi, “Site investigation on medical waste management practices in northern Jordan,” Waste management, vol. 31, pp. 450-8, 2008.
[15] A. Sarsour, A. Ayoub, I. Lubbad, A. Omran, I. Shahrour, “Assessment of Medical Waste Management within Selected Hospitals in Gaza Strip Palestine: A Pilot Study,” International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 164, 2014.
[16] F. Malekahmadi, M. Yunesian, “Analysis of the healthcare waste management status in Tehran hospitals,” Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, vol. 27, pp. 1, 2014.
[17] M. Azage, G. Haimanot, and M. Mesafint, "Healthcare waste management practices among healthcare workers in healthcare facilities of Gondar town,” Northwest Ethiopi, vol. 7, pp. 315-322, 2013.
[18] A. Malini, B. Eshwar, “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Biomedical waste management among health care personnel in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry,” International Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 30, pp. 172-6, 2015.
[19] R. Kumar, A. Zulfiqar, AG. Zulfikar, “Assessment of health care waste management practices and knowledge among HCPs working at tertiary care setting of Pakistan, J Health Res, vol. 27, pp. 4, 2013.
[20] M. Basu, P. Das, R. Pal, “Assessment of future physicians on biomedical waste management in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal,” Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine. Vol. 3, pp. 38, 2012.

[21] S. Pradhan, S. Prasad, BR. Chinmaya, S. Tandon, “Perception of Biomedical Waste Management among Dental Health Care Personnel of Various Dental Colleges in Delhi NCR, India: A Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Study, ijss, vol. 10, pp. 208, 2016.

[22] U. krishnan, T. Shiela, D. Devamani, “Where Lies the Grey Zone in Implementation of Biomedical Waste Management? A KAP Study,” NJLM, vol. 12, pp. 204, 2015.

[23] R. Sanjeev, S. Kuruvilla, R. Subramaniam, PS. Prashant, M. Gopalakrishnan, “Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among dental healthcare personnel in dental colleges in Kothamangalam: a cross-sectional study,” Health Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 1-2, 2014.
[24] M. Akbolat, DE. Cemile, IS. Oguz, H. Saglam, “Medical waste management practices in Turkey: A case study in Sakarya,” Pak J Med Sci, Vol. 27, 892- 895. 2011.
[25] RK. Sehgal, R. Garg, PS. Dhot, P. Singhal, “A study of knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding biomedical waste management among the health-care workers in a multispeciality teaching hospital at Delhi,” International Journal, vol. 4, pp. 1540, 2015.
[26] S. Jankovic, J. Bojanic, A. Jovic-Vranes, J. Marinkovic, J. Jankovic, “Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards blood-borne pathogens in HCPs in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Central European journal of medicine, vol. 4, pp. 409-14, 2009.
[27] A. Khanna, “An Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices about Biomedical Waste Management among Owners of Nursing Homes/Private Hospitals in the Central Area of Uttar Pradesh, India, International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR), vol. 4, pp. 10-6, 2014.
[28] R. Radha, "Assessment of existing knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding biomedical waste management among the HCPs in a tertiary care rural hospital," International Journal of Health Services and Research, pp. 14-19, 2012.
[29] KP. Pudussery, “Study On the Medical Waste Management in the Norfolk AND Norwich University Hospital (Doctoral dissertation, MS Thesis,’ University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences), 2012.
[30] MS. Mulatu, P. Converse, M. Kaba, DH. Mariam, W. Mekonnen, H. Kloos, “Bibliography on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and Ethiopians in the Diaspora: The 2013 Update,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 28, pp. 45-72, 2014.
[31] I. Sabbah, H. Sabbah, S. Sabbah, H. Akoum, N. Droubi, “Occupational exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF): Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among HCPs in general hospitals in Lebanon, Health, vol. 5, pp. 70, 2013.
[32] M. Asadullah, GK. Karthik, B. Dharmappa, “A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Biomedical Waste Management Among Nursing Staff in Private Hospitals in Udupi City,” Int J Geol Earth Environ Sci, vol. 3, pp. 118-23, 2013.
[33] SA. Hakim, A. Mohsen, I. Bakr, “Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health-care personnel towards waste disposal management at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo,” EMHJ, vol. 20, pp. 5, 2014.
[34] H. Fiedler, “National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants,” Chemosphere, vol. 67, pp. 96-108, 2007.
[35] V. Ferreira, M. Ribau, “Assessing the medical waste management practices and associated risk perceptions in Algarve hospitals, Portugal,” InISWA/APESB world congress, 2009.
[36] C. Ketlogetswe, MT. Oladirang and J. Foster, “Improved combustion process in medical waste incinerators for rural application,” African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 5, pp. 67-72, 2004.