Bacteriological Profile and Antibacterial Sensitivity Patterns of Isolates among Burn Patients in Sulaimani City

Abstract = 850 times | PDF = 734 times

Main Article Content

Kamal Jalal Rashid Muhammed Babakir-Mina Dana Abdilmajid Abdilkarim Bestun Ibrahim Hama Rahim Sarko Masood Mohammed


Nosocomial infections have increasingly been implicated in transferring fatal septic complications in burn patients. Also multidrug resistant profiles of microorganisms are being increasingly found in burn wounds which are very much alarming due to the limited number effective antibacterial drugs. Retrospective data were collected from burn patients at Sulaimani Burn and Plastic Surgery Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015. Culture& sensitivity tests were performed using wound surface swabs and tissue culture over the three year period. Their results were collected in a predesigned digital form. Statistical analysis was done and results plotted. Out of 500 burn positive swabs samples were previously taken from hospitalized patients, the commonest bacterial isolate were gram-positive bacterial infection; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) 215(43%) followed by gram-negative bacterial infection; Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  95(19%) and 85 (17%). Vancomycin has no any resistant rate for all gram-positive bacteria followed, but Teicoplanin is the second best drug especially, for MRSA 8.4%. Imipenem and Meropenem are antibiotics with no or less resistant rates for most of gram negative bacteria. Resistance to antibiotics is rapidly increasing in our community and burn wounds are frequently infected by these multidrug resistant organisms. Careful antibiotic selection and effective control of these strains can be translated into lower morbidity and mortality for these patients.


Burn patients; MRSA; Antibacterial drug; Multidrug resistant, and Burn Patients


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] M. Saaiq, S. Ahmad, and M. S. Zaib, "Burn wound infections and antibiotic susceptibility patterns at pakistan institute of medical sciences, islamabad, pakistan," World J Plast Surg, vol. 4, pp. 9-15, Jan 2015.
[2] D. Church, S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay, "Burn wound infections," Clin Microbiol Rev, vol. 19, pp. 403-34, Apr 2006.
[3] G. Persson and J. Lindén, "Paediatric Burns and its Related Infections: a Qualitative Study Emphasizing the Preventive Work Conducted by Nurses in Dar es Salaam.," 2015.
[4] E. E. DiMuzio, D. P. Healy, P. Durkee, A. N. Neely, and R. J. Kagan, "Trends in bacterial wound isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility in a pediatric burn hospital," J Burn Care Res, vol. 35, pp. e304-11, Sep-Oct 2014.
[5] L. A. Barajas-Nava, J. Lopez-Alcalde, M. Roque i Figuls, I. Sola, and X. Bonfill Cosp, "Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection," Cochrane Database Syst Rev, p. CD008738, 2013.
[6] S. Behzadnia, A. Davoudi, M. S. Rezai, and F. Ahangarkani, "Nosocomial infections in pediatric population and antibiotic resistance of the causative organisms in north of iran," Iran Red Crescent Med J, vol. 16, p. e14562, Feb 2014.
[7] G. M. AbdulRazzaq, "Pattern of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance pf uropathogenes among pediatric patients with urinary tract infection," Iraq J Pharm, vol. 1, p. 13, 2012.
[8] A. Zbuchea, O. Racasan, V. Falca, C. Mitache, and C. Vladescu, "Epidemiologic and Bacteriologic Study of the Burned Patients from the Plastic Surgery Department of the County Emergency Hospital of Ploiesti, over a 4 Years Period (2010-2013)," Chirurgia (Bucur), vol. 110, pp. 362-7, Jul-Aug 2015.
[9] M. Babakir-Mina, K. J. Rashid, S. S. Beg, C. K. Noori, M. I. M. Gubari, F. A. Mohialdeen, et al., "Epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn patients," kjar, vol. 1, 2016.
[10] E. Salehifar, G. Khorasani, and S. Ala, "Time-related Concordance Between Swab and Biopsy Samples in the Microbiological Assessment of Burn Wounds," Wounds, vol. 21, pp. 84-8, Mar 2009.
[11] A. Pechorsky, Y. Nitzan, and T. Lazarovitch, "Identification of pathogenic bacteria in blood cultures: comparison between conventional and PCR methods," J Microbiol Methods, vol. 78, pp. 325-30, Sep 2009.
[12] V. J., V. J., E. K., R. P., P. P., and H. C., "Basic laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology, 2nd edition," WHO Geneva, pp. 91-93, 2003.
[13] D. Kun-qi, Y. Li-juan, and C. Qun-ying, "Investigation of Bacterial Species Distribution and Drug Resistance of Children With Wound Infection," Chinese Journal of Disinfection, vol. 5, p. 446, 2012.
[14] C. G. Mayhall, "The epidemiology of burn wound infections: then and now," Clin Infect Dis, vol. 37, pp. 543-50, Aug 15 2003.
[15] I. Balaban, G. Tanir, O. Metin Timur, F. N. Oz, T. Aydin Teke, G. I. Bayhan, et al., "Nosocomial infections in the general pediatric wards of a hospital in Turkey," Jpn J Infect Dis, vol. 65, pp. 318-21, Jul 2012.
[16] S. H, "Bacterial Profile of Paediatric Burn Wounds and their Antibacterial Sensitivity Patterns," Journal of Surgery: Open Access ( ISSN 2470-0991 ), vol. 2, 2016.
[17] J. P. Barret and D. N. Herndon, "Effects of burn wound excision on bacterial colonization and invasion," Plast Reconstr Surg, vol. 111, pp. 744-50; discussion 751-2, Feb 2003.
[18] U. Altoparlak, S. Erol, M. N. Akcay, F. Celebi, and A. Kadanali, "The time-related changes of antimicrobial resistance patterns and predominant bacterial profiles of burn wounds and body flora of burned patients," Burns, vol. 30, pp. 660-4, Nov 2004.
[19] S. Erol, U. Altoparlak, M. N. Akcay, F. Celebi, and M. Parlak, "Changes of microbial flora and wound colonization in burned patients," Burns, vol. 30, pp. 357-61, Jun 2004.
[20] M. Guggenheim, R. Zbinden, A. E. Handschin, A. Gohritz, M. A. Altintas, and P. Giovanoli, "Changes in bacterial isolates from burn wounds and their antibiograms: a 20-year study (1986-2005)," Burns, vol. 35, pp. 553-60, Jun 2009.
[21] O. Ergun, A. Celik, G. Ergun, and G. Ozok, "Prophylactic antibiotic use in pediatric burn units," Eur J Pediatr Surg, vol. 14, pp. 422-6, Dec 2004.
[22] L. K. Branski, A. Al-Mousawi, H. Rivero, M. G. Jeschke, A. P. Sanford, and D. N. Herndon, "Emerging infections in burns," Surg Infect (Larchmt), vol. 10, pp. 389-97, Oct 2009.
[23] L. F. Wang, J. L. Li, W. H. Ma, and J. Y. Li, "Drug resistance analysis of bacterial strains isolated from burn patients," Genet Mol Res, vol. 13, pp. 9727-34, 2014.
[24] G. A. Tayh, "Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of Pathogens Isolated from Burn Units at Local Hospitals in Gaza Strip, Palestine," Islamic University-Gaza, Islamic University-Gaza, 2011.
[25] B. Dormanesh, S. Siroosbakhat, E. Khodaverdi Darian, and L. Afsharkhas, "Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Various Types of Hospital Infections in Pediatrics: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec SCCmec Phenotypes and Antibiotic Resistance Properties," Jundishapur J Microbiol, vol. 8, p. e11341, Nov 2015.
[26] L. K. Elamenya, "Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria that cause wound sepsis in the paediatric surgical patients at Kenyatta national hospital," University of Nairobi, 2015.
[27] M. Imran, M. Faheem, V. Aslam, A. Hakeem, and A. Shah, "Wound infections and culture sensitivity pattern in pediatric burn patients," Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute (Peshawar-Pakistan), vol. 23, 2011.
[28] M. S. Rezai and S. Shahmohammadi, "Nosocomial Infections in Iranian Pediatric Patients With Burn Injuries: A Review," Journal of Pediatrics Review, vol. 3, p. e680, 2015.
[29] M. Souli, I. Galani, and H. Giamarellou, "Emergence of extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in Europe," Euro Surveill, vol. 13, Nov 20 2008.
[30] Y. Bayram, M. Parlak, C. Aypak, and I. Bayram, "Three-year review of bacteriological profile and antibiogram of burn wound isolates in Van, Turkey," Int J Med Sci, vol. 10, pp. 19-23, 2013.
[31] E. Jafar, M. R. Shakibaie, and L. Poormasoomi, "Isolation of a novel antibiotic resistance plasmid DNA from hospital isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa," Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology, vol. 2013, 2013.
[32] WHO, "Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014," Webcast of Q&A Session on global report on surveillance, p. 257, 2014.
[33] B. Diler, N. Dalgic, C. A. Karadag, and A. I. Dokucu, "Epidemiology and Infections in a Pediatric Burn Unit: Experience of Three Years," Çocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi/Journal of Pediatric Infection, vol. 6, pp. 40-45, 2012.