The causes of early neonatal death in Sulaimani Intensive Care Unite at Maternity Teaching Hospital between Jan 2016 - Feb 2017

Abstract = 27 times | PDF = 76 times

Main Article Content

Pary M. Azize Layla A. Muhammad Nasren A. Kareem


Early neonatal death refers to all deaths of liveborn infants occurring on or before the first seven days of life. There is a shortage of research on the specific causes of early neonatal death. This study has been conducted in order to assess causes of early neonatal death in Sulaimani's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Maternity Teaching Hospital. Information was obtained retrospectively from the patients’ medical records, including (Mother and neonate socio-demographic, Maternal, Fetal and labor causes of death). Generally, this study found that in 2016 out of total 18.573 recorded delivery, 168 early neonatal deaths were analyzed from January 2016 to February 2017. However, this number was declined in comparison to the data of 2015, which estimated around 244 early deaths out of 21.142 total births. The mean age of mothers was ranged (28.22 ±7.69), 73.2% of neonate mothers were multi gravid with 67.3% of them delivered through normal vaginal, The majority of early neonate death was happening in the mean expected date delivery of (28.64 ± 2.90) weeks, with  mostly weighing  700- 1.10 gm.  Regarding the maternal causes, more than a quarter of the mother had Preeclamptic toxemia followed by (25% antepartum hemorrhage, 22.6% diabetes, respectively), In terms of the fetal causes, more than three-quarter of neonate  were dead because of prematurity and the majority 85.2% were deceased because of the respiratory distress syndrome. Almost no labor causes. The study also found that there is a significant association between gravidity, mode of delivery and maternal cause in p value < 0.05. However, that relationship was not found to fetal cause. Moreover, there is also no significant relationship between fetal cause and (Age of mother, Expected date delivery and fetal weight) in p-value > 0.05 accept the gender of the neonate. In conclusion, some factors affecting early neonatal death have been identified in this study special care is essential for these children in order to reduce their mortality rates.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] MAM. Gaíva, RM. Bittencourt, E. Fujimor, “Early and late neonatal death: characteristics of mothers and newborn, ” Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem, vol. 34, pp. 91-97, 2013.
[2] A. Wong, D. Elder, J. Zuccollo, “Changes in cause of neonatal death over a decade,” New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 4, pp. 39-46, 2008.

[3] JE. Lawn, D. Osrin, A. Adler, S. Cousens, “Four million neonatal deaths: counting and attribution of cause of death,” Paediatr Perinat Epidemiology, vol. 22, pp. 410–416, 2008.
[4] J. Pathirana; FM. Muñoz, V. Abbing-Karahagopian, N. Bhat, T. Harris, A. Kapoor, “Neonatal death: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data,” Vaccine, vol. 34, pp. 6027–6037, 2016.
[5] World Health Organization, Newborn death and illness, WHO, 2011.

[6] World Health Organization; Causes of maternal and child deaths Taking Stock of Maternal , Newborn and Child survival 2000-2010 decade report, WHO, 2010.

[7] S. Oza, JA. Lawn, DR. Hogan, C. Mathers & SN. Cousens, “Neonatal cause-of-death estimates for the early and late neonatal periods for 194 countries: 2000–2013” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 93, pp. 19-28, 2015.

[8] ER. Allanson, M. Muller, RC, “Pattinson Causes of perinatal mortality and associated maternal complications in a South African province: challenges in predicting poor outcomes,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, pp. 15:37, 2015.

[9] H. Blencowe, S, Cousens, M. Oestergaard, D. Chou, AB. Moller, R. Narwal, et al., “National, regional and worldwide estimates of preterm birth,” The Lancet,. Vol. 379, pp. 2162-2172, 2012.

[10] AL. Stuebe, “Causes of Preterm Labor,” Health Line Media, 2012.

[11] March of Dimes, “Neonatal Death Retrieved on November 10,” 2014.

[12] National Center for Health Statistics, “2004 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data,” Prepared by the March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center, 2008.

[13] HR. Chowdhury, S. Thompson, M. Ali, N. Alam, M. Yunus, PK. Streatfield, “Causes of neonatal deaths in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh: implications for intervention. Journal of Health,” Population and Nutrition, vol.28, pp. 375–82, 2010.

[14] RE. Behrman, AS. Butler, “Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention,” Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US), 2007.
[15] BT. Mmbaga, RT. Lie, R. Olomi, MJ. Mahande, O. Olola and AK. Daltveit, “Causes of perinatal death at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Tanzania 2000–2010: a registry based study,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 12, pp. 139, 2012.
[16] American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn Policy Statement, ‘Levels of Neonatal Care,” Pediatrics, vol. 130, pp. 587, 2012.

[17] Department of Health and Human Services, “2009 Prenatal care fact sheet,” 2012.

[18] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Reproductive health: preterm birth,” 2014.

[19] CA. Crowther, J. Brown, CJ. McKinlay, P. Middleton, “Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour, Cochrane Database System Review, 2014.

[20] CM. Gibbs, A. Wendt, S. Peters, and CJ. Hogue, CJ. Souza, R. Mori, et al., “The Impact of Early Age at First Childbirth on Maternal and Infant Health,” Journal of Perinatology, 2017.
[21] S. Chaudhary and S. Contag, “The effect of maternal age on fetal and neonatal mortality,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 7, pp. 467–474, 2011.
[22] G. Duarte, PC. Coltro, RV. Bedone, AA. Nogueira, GM. Gelonezzi, LJ. Franco, “Trends in the modes of delivery and their impact on perinatal mortality rates Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health,” Early MJPCH, 2015.

[23] J. Uzan, M. Carbonnel, O. Piconne, R. Asmar and J. Ayoubi, “Pre-eclampsia: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 7, pp. 467–474, 2011.

[24] FA. English, LC. Kenny, and FG. McCarthy , “ Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia,” Integrated Blood Pressure Control - Dove Press, vol. 8, pp. 7–12, 2015

[25] HJ. Mahmood, SJ. Sulaiman, “Assessment Of Factors Causing Mortality Rate Of Neonate In Al-Batool Teaching Hospital In Mosul City,” Journal of Kufa for Nursing Science, vol. 3, pp. 1-6, 2013.

[26] S. Hussain, SH. Tarar, “Neonatal Mortality of Low Birth Weight Neonats Born in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital In Pakistan,” Malaysian Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 2015.
[27] HL. Ersdal, E. Mduma, E. Svensen, J. Perlman, “Birth asphyxia: a major cause of early neonatal mortality in a Tanzanian rural hospital,” Pediatrics, vol. 129, pp. e1238-1243, 2012.

[28] JA. Lothian, “Safe, Healthy Birth: What Every Pregnant Woman Needs to Know,” The Journal of Perinatal Education, vol. 18, pp. 48–54, 2009.