Effect of Testosterone on Lead Acetate Toxicity in Male Albino Rats

Abstract = 15 times | PDF = 70 times

Main Article Content

Nazar Mohammed Shareef Mahmood Sarkawt Hamad Ameen Hamad Dlshad Hussein Hassan Karwan Ismael Othman


The toxicity of lead acetate (L. A.) concerned to public health disruptor due to its persistence in the environment and it has the adverse influence on the human and animal health as well. It causes physiological,biochemical, and neurological dysfunctions in humans. Histologically it has a negative effect on the liver which is considered one of the major target organs where acts as detoxification machine by elimination the toxic substance from the blood in rich with it.  As well as it affects kidneys that are the two of the most filtering organs. Therefore the present study was aimed to investigate the histopathological effect of L.A. on liver and kidney tissues in male rats. Twenty male rats involved in the study were equally and randomly divided into two groups each of them involved 10 animals. Group I (castrated rats) and Group II (control) each group received 80mg/L of lead acetate dissolved in one liter distilled water by drinking for 15 days. Histological sections showed some alterations including abnormal architecture, cell degeneration, nuclear degeneration, hyperchromatic hepatocytes, immune cells, degeneration in tubules, dilation in sinusoids, dilation in central vein of liver increased bowman's space glomerular atrophy degeneration of tubular cells in liver and kidney tissues of rats in castrated rats from control group. But the size of degenerated tissue was more severe in castrated male rats. It was concluded that the castration process could produce a hypogonadism and decreased testosterone which owns many receptors in kidney and liver may produce adverse influence with L.A. administration.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] D. D. Chiras, Environmental science: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011.
[2] F. R. Moreira and J. C. Moreira, "Effects of lead exposure on the human body and health implications," Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, vol. 15, pp. 119-129, 2004.
[3] D. R. Juberg, C. F. Kleiman, and S. C. Kwon, "Position paper of the American Council on Science and Health: lead and human health," Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, vol. 38, pp. 162-180, 1997.
[4] P. Hotz, F. Mujyabwami, H. Roels, A. M. Bernard, and R. R. Lauwerys, "Effect of oral protein load on urinary protein excretion in workers exposed to cadmium and to lead," American journal of industrial medicine, vol. 29, pp. 195-200, 1996.
[5] R. Patra, D. Swarup, and S. Dwivedi, "Antioxidant effects of α tocopherol, ascorbic acid and L-methionine on lead induced oxidative stress to the liver, kidney and brain in rats," Toxicology, vol. 162, pp. 81-88, 2001.
[6] E. Wielgus-Serafińska, A. Zawadzka, and B. Falkus, "The effect of lead acetate on rat liver mitochondria," Acta physiologica Polonica, vol. 31, pp. 659-668, 1979.
[7] B. M. Jarrar and N. T. Taib, "Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver induced by lead chronic toxicity," Saudi journal of biological sciences, vol. 19, pp. 203-210, 2012.
[8] U. Radwańska-Konarzewska, F. Woźniak, and Z. Siezieniewska, "Influence of lead acetate on the histological, ultrastructural and histochemical picture of the livers of albino rats," in Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio D: Medicina, 1992, pp. 141-147.
[9] K. Goswami, R. Gachhui, and A. Bandopadhyay, "Hepatorenal dysfunctions in lead pollution," Journal of environmental science & engineering, vol. 47, pp. 75-80, 2005.
[10] M. H. Jankeer and A. A. El-Nouri, "Histological study of the liver and kidney of albino mice Mus musculus exposed to lead," J. Raf. Sci, vol. 20, pp. 42-51, 2009.
[11] Z. Haouas, A. Sallem, I. Zidi, H. Hichri, I. Mzali, and M. Mehdi, "Hepatotoxic effects of lead acetate in rats: histopathological and cytotoxic studies," Journal of Cytology & Histology, vol. 5, p. 1, 2014.
[12] A. M. Hegazy and U. A. Fouad, "Evaluation of Lead Hepatotoxicity; Histological, Histochemical and Ultrastructural Study," Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research, vol. 2, p. 70, 2014.
[13] R. Jabeen, M. Tahir, and S. Waqas, "Teratogenic effects of lead acetate on kidney," J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, vol. 22, pp. 76-79, 2010.
[14] F. Hartgens and H. Kuipers, "Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes," Sports medicine, vol. 34, pp. 513-554, 2004.
[15] C. Bukowski, M. A. Grigg, and C. Longcope, "Sex hormone-binding globulin concentration: differences among commercially available methods," Clinical chemistry, vol. 46, pp. 1415-1416, 2000.
[16] L. Wang, H. Wang, M. Hu, J. Cao, D. Chen, and Z. Liu, "Oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells exposed to lead," Archives of toxicology, vol. 83, pp. 417-427, 2009.
[17] Y. Verma and S. Rana, "Modulation of CYP 450 2E1 and oxidative stress by testosterone in liver and kidney of benzene treated rats," 2008.
[18] M. P. Keane, J. A. Belperio, D. A. Arenberg, M. D. Burdick, Z. J. Xu, Y. Y. Xue, et al., "IFN-γ-inducible protein-10 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibition of angiogenesis," The journal of immunology, vol. 163, pp. 5686-5692, 1999.
[19] R. Drury and E. Wallington, "Preparation and fixation of tissues," Carleton's histological technique, vol. 5, pp. 41-54, 1980.
[20] J. D. Bancroft and M. Gamble, Theory and practice of histological techniques: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2008.
[21] M. Kosnett, "Heavy metal intoxication and chelators," Basic and clinical pharmacology, 10th ed, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 945-957, 2007.
[22] H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, and K. Yagi, "Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction," Analytical biochemistry, vol. 95, pp. 351-358, 1979.
[23] A. A. El-Nekeety, A. A. El-Kady, M. S. Soliman, N. S. Hassan, and M. A. Abdel-Wahhab, "Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris (L.) against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress in rats," Food and chemical toxicology, vol. 47, pp. 2209-2215, 2009.
[24] G. H. El-Sokkary, G. H. Abdel-Rahman, and E. S. Kamel, "Melatonin protects against lead-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male rats," Toxicology, vol. 213, pp. 25-33, 2005.
[25] P. Tanganelli, G. Bianciardi, L. Barbagli, A. Paffetti, A. Di Stefano, M. Pizzichini, et al., "Effects of testosterone on the liver of castrated rats: morphologic study," Experimental pathology, vol. 43, pp. 21-24, 1991.
[26] J. Buchet, R. Lauwerys, H. Roels, A. Bernard, P. Bruaux, F. Claeys, et al., "Renal effects of cadmium body burden of the general population," The Lancet, vol. 336, pp. 699-702, 1990.
[27] B. Payne and L. Saunders, "Heavy metal nephropathy of rodents," Veterinary pathology, vol. 15, pp. 51-87, 1978.
[28] A. Bateman, L. Coin, R. Durbin, R. D. Finn, V. Hollich, S. Griffiths‐Jones, et al., "The Pfam protein families database," Nucleic acids research, vol. 32, pp. D138-D141, 2004.
[29] I. Z. Pawluczyk, E. K. Tan, and K. P. Harris, "Rat mesangial cells exhibit sex-specific profibrotic and proinflammatory phenotypes," Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 24, pp. 1753-1758, 2009.
[30] P. D. Metcalfe, J. A. Leslie, M. T. Campbell, D. R. Meldrum, K. L. Hile, and K. K. Meldrum, "Testosterone exacerbates obstructive renal injury by stimulating TNF-α production and increasing proapoptotic and profibrotic signaling," American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 294, pp. E435-E443, 2008.
[31] J. Hu, S. Tan, and Y. Zhong, "Effects of testosterone on renal function in salt-loaded rats," The American journal of the medical sciences, vol. 342, pp. 38-43, 2011.
[32] D. J. Handelsman, "Hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal dysfunction in renal failure, dialysis and renal transplantation," Endocrine Reviews, vol. 6, pp. 151-182, 1985.
[33] J. Carrero, A. Qureshi, J. Axelsson, M. Yilmaz, S. Rehnmark, M. Witt, et al., "Clinical and biochemical implications of low thyroid hormone levels (total and free forms) in euthyroid patients with chronic kidney disease," Journal of internal medicine, vol. 262, pp. 690-701, 2007.
[34] A. Schmidt, A. Luger, and W. H. Hörl, "Sexual hormone abnormalities in male patients with renal failure," Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 17, pp. 368-371, 2002.
[35] L. Dunkel, T. Raivio, J. Laine, and C. Holmberg, "Circulating luteinizing hormone receptor inhibitor (s) in boys with chronic renal failure," Kidney international, vol. 51, pp. 777-784, 1997.