Design and Implementation of a Chatbot for Kurdish Language Speakers Using Chatfuel Platform

Abstract = 134 times | PDF = 19 times

Main Article Content

Hemn Karim Ahmed Jamal Ali Hussein


Chatbot is a software agent that is used to conduct intelligent conversations between machines and humans. Chatbots are mostly depend on Natural Language Processing (NLP). In this paper, the design and implementation of a chatbot are provided to help Kurdish speakers in using online conversations via texts to find answers instead of direct contact with human agents. The NLP-based software agent is implemented using the Chatfuel platform. Chatfuel uses artificial intelligence to communicate with humans by simulating human conversations through voice commands or texts. The proposed chatbot is tested on an electronic tourist guide that helps visitors to the religious places in the mountainous village of Barzanja that is located in Iraqi Kurdistan. The case study is conducted by using three-hundred questions and answers. One hundred volunteers participated in this study. The participant asks a question and the bot provides an answer if it recognizes the question, otherwise it provides a default answer along with a suggestion of how to use the system properly. The data of these experiment is collected, analyzed, and problems regarding Kurdish language are detected. Designing software agents for processing Kurdish texts faces many challenges. Kurdish texts have not yet been processed using natural language processing (NLP). In addition, Kurdish font disorder and the lack of standardized keyboards and writing styles makes processing Kurdish text difficult. Furthermore, Kurdish language consists of variety of different dialects with different typing styles. In this research, we specifically focus on the design of a software agent for the Central Kurdish (Sorani) dialect. We managed to solve some of the problems related to the Kurdish language and suggest solutions to others. 


Chatbot, Kurdish Language, NLP, Software Robotic, Artificial Intelligent, Kurd Agent.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] C. Mahalakshmi, T.Sharmila, S.Priyanka, M. Sastry, D. B. V. R. M. Reddy and M. K. K. Reddy, "A SURVEY ON VARIOUS CHATBOT IMPLEMENTENTION TECHNIQUES," JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations, vol. Volume VI, no. Issue I, January 2019.
[2] H. Devarasetti, M. Kamilla, A. R. K, M. C. K. K. Reddy and D. B. V. D. Ramanamurthy., "AI CHATBOTS," JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations, vol. Volume VI, no. Issue I, January 2019.
[3] R. M. Sharma, "Chatbot based College Information System," RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary, Vols. Volume-04, no. Issue-03, pp. 109-112, March 2019.
[4] Bc.JakubKříž, Chatbot for Laundry and Dry Cleaning Service, Brno: Masaryk University Press, 2017.
[5] K. M. Kaka-Khan, Building Kurdish Chatbot Using Free Open, UHD JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 2017.
[6] S. S. Aljameel, Development of an Arabic Conversational Intelligent Tutoring System for Education of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, PhD Thesis, Manchester Metropolitan University, 2018.
[7] D. A. Ali and N. Habash, "Botta: An Arabic Dialect Chatbot," the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations, 2016.
[8] E. S. AlHagbani and M. B. K. , "Challenges Facing the Development of the Arabic Chatbot," First International Workshop on Pattern Recognition,, 2016.
[9] P. M. Izady, The Kurds: A Concise Handbook, Harvard University Press, 1992.
[10] D. J. Nebez, Towards a unified Kurdish language, Bamberg: NUKSE publisher, 1976.
[11] D. Sadjadi and M. Ibrahimi, Kurdish language and literature, Saqz: Gutar Press, 1396.
[12] L.O.Fossum, A Practical Kurdish Grammar, THE INTER-SYNODICAL EV.LUTHERAN ORIENT -MISSION SOCIETY, 1919.
[13] D. H. Kim, A Basic Guide to Kurdish Grammar, Culture and Language Institute of Kurdi and Kori, 2010.
[14] D. A. Rokhzadi, Sorani Kurdish Grammar, Kurdistan Publication, Sanandaj, 1389.
[15] D. A. H. Marf, Kurdish Grammar - Morphology, vol. Volume 1, Baghdad: Al-Huriya House , 1998.
[16] D. A.-W. Dzay, Kurdish Morphology, Second Edition ed., Hawler: Salahadin University Press, 2013.
[17] W. M. Thackston, Sorani Kurdish, A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings, Harvard, 2011.
[18] N. Khoshnaw, Kurdish Grammar, Hawler: Salahadin, 2015.
[19] N. Khoshnaw, Kurdish Language Syntax, Hawler: Rojhalat Printing, 2012.
[20] P. D. W. O. Amen, Asoyaky Try Zmanawany, vol. Volume: 1, Hawler: Aras Publication, 2009.
[21] D. Farhadi, Hende Layeni Rstesazy Zmani Kurdi, Hawler: Kurdish Academic , 2013.
[22] E. D. Liddy, Natural Language Processing, NY. Marcel Decker, Inc., 2001.
[23] K. R. Chowdhary, Fundamentals of Artificial Intelligence, Springer Nature India Private Limited, 2020.
[24] D. Khurana, A. Koli, K. Khatter and S. Singh, Natural Language Processing: State of The Art, Current Trends and, India, 2016.
[25] R. Kibble, Introduction to natural language processing, London : University of London , 2013.
[26] A. Copestake, Natural Language Processing, University of Cambridge,, 2004.
[27] E. D. Liddy, Natural Language Processing, Syracuse University Press, 2001.
[28] P. M. Nadkarni, L. Ohno-Machado and W. W. Chapman, Natural language processing: an introduction, J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2011.
[29] J. Hirschberg and C. D. Manning, Advances in natural language processing, science mag, 2015.
[30] E. Cambria and B. White, Jumping NLP Curves: A Review of Natural Language Processing Research, IEEE Computational intelligence magazine, 2014.
[31] T. Hosseinikhah, A. Ahmadi and A. Mohebi, A New Persian Text Summarization Approach Based on Natural Language Processing and Graph Similarity, Iranian Journal of Information Processing and Management, 2018.
[32] J. Bozic, O. A. Tazl and F. Wotawa, "Chatbot Testing Using AI Planning," in IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Testing (AITest), 2019.
[33] F. Peters, "Design and implementation of a chatbot in the context of customer support," University of Liège press, 2018.
[34] M. T. ZEMČÍK, "A Brief History of Chatbots," in International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Control and Automation Engineering (AICAE 2019) , 2019 .
[35] G. NEFF and P. NAGY, "Talking to Bots: Symbiotic Agency and the Case of Tay," International Journal of Communication 10, vol. Volume 10, 2016.
[36] J. Weizenbaum, "ELIZA—a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine," Communications of the ACM, vol. Volume 9, no. Number 1, January 1966.
[37] S. AlHumoud, A. A. Wazrah and W. Aldamegh, "Arabic Chatbots: A Survey," (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol. Vol. 9, no. No. 8, 2018.
[38] Ch.Sanjana, S.G.Deevena, B.Saritha, M. Sastry, D. V. R. Murthy and M. K. Reddy, "Chatbot Design Techniques in Speech Conversation Systems," JASC: Journal of Applied Science and Computations, vol. Volume VI, no. Issue I, January 2019.
[39] R. DALE, "Industry Watch The return of the chatbots," Natural Language Engineering, vol. Volume 22, no. Issue 5, September 2016.
[40] H. Chung, M. Iorga, J. Voas and S. Lee, "Alexa, Can I Trust You?," NIST : National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. Volume 9, no. Issue 50, September 2017 .
[41] G. López, L. Quesada and L. A. Guerrero, "Alexa vs. Siri vs. Cortana vs. Google Assistant: A Comparison of Speech-Based Natural User Interfaces," Alexa vs. Siri vs. Cortana vs. Google Assistant: A Comparison of Speech-Based Natural User Interfaces, Gusta Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vols. Alexa vs. Siri vs. Cortana vs. Google Assistant: A Comparison of Speech-Based Natural User Interfaces, Gustavo Ló Volume 592, 2018 .
[42] N. MARECHAL, "When Bots Tweet: Toward a Normative Framework for Bots on Social Networking Sites," International Journal of Communication, vol. Volume 10, 2016.
[43] K. Manzoor, What are Chatbots? Beginner's Guide To Chatbots, McKinsey , 2017.
[44] K. Nimavat and P. T. Champaneria, "Chatbots: An overview. Types, Architecture, Tools and Future Possibilities," IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development, vol. Vol. 5, no. Issue 07, 2017.
[45] E. Adamopoulou and L. Moussiades, An Overview of Chatbot Technology, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2020.
[46] E. Din, CHATBOTS: THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE, Artificial Solutions, 2020..
[47] S. A. Abdul-Kader and D. J. Woods, "Survey on Chatbot Design Techniques in Speech Conversation Systems," (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol. Volume 6, no. No. 7, 2015 .
[48] D. R. S. W. A. L. L. A. C. E, The Elements of AIML Style, ALICE A. I. Foundation Inc Press, 2003.
[49] M. Dahiya, "A Tool of Conversation: Chatbot," International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering , Vols. Volume-5, no. Issue-5 , 2017.
[50] L. Bradeško and D. Mladenić, "A Survey of Chabot Systems through a Loebner Prize Competition," in Proceedings of Slovenian Language Technologies Society Eighth Conference of Language Technologies, 2012.
[51] Madhumitha.S, Keerthana.B and Mrs.Hemalatha.B, Interactive Chatbot Using AIML, Int. Jnl. Of Advanced Networking & Applications (IJANA), 2019.
[52] N. Teckchandani, A. Santokhee and G. Bekaroo, AIML and Sequence-to-Sequence Models to Build Artificial Intelligence Chatbots: Insights from a Comparative Analysis, Springer Nature Switzerland, 2019.
[53] S. A. Abdul-Kader and D. J. Woods, Survey on Chatbot Design Techniques in Speech Conversation Systems, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 2015.
[54] H. Yamaguchi, M. Mozgovoy and A. Danielewicz-Betz, A Chatbot Based On AIML Rules Extracted From Twitter Dialogues, Communication Papers of the Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, 2018.
[55] N. Teckchandani, A. Santokhee and G. Bekaroo, AIML and Sequence-to-Sequence Models to Build Artificial Intelligence Chatbots: Insights from a Comparative Analysis, Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
[56] D. Ireland, H. Hassanzadeh and S. N. Tran, Sentimental Analysis for AIML-Based E-Health Conversational Agents, Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018, 2018.
[57] M. d. G. B. Marietto, R. V. d. Aguiar, G. d. O. Barbosa, W. T. Botelho, E. Pimentel and R. d. S. França, Artificial Intelligence MArkup Language: A Brief Tutorial, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey, 2013.
[58] S. Janarthanam, Hands-On Chatbots and Conversational UI Development : Build chatbots and voice user interfaces with Chatfuel, Dialogflow, Microsoft Bot Framework, Twilio, and Alexa Skills, Birmingham: Packt Publishing Ltd., 2017.
[59] Navin Sabharwal, Sudipta Barua, Neha Anand and Pallavi Aggarwal, Developing Cognitive Bots Using the IBM Watson Engine, Apress Media LLC, 2020 .
[60] A. Singh, K. Ramasubramanian and S. Shivam, Building an Enterprise Chatbot : Work with Protected Enterprise Data Using Open Source Frameworks, Apress Media LLC, 2019 .
[61] S. Sannikova, Chatbot implementation with Microsoft Bot Framework, Metropolia University Press, 2017.
[62] D. Braun and FlorianMatthes, "TowardsaFrameworkforClassifyingChatbots," in International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2019), 2019.
[63] N. Asher, "A Warmer Welcome : Application of a Chatbot as a Facilitator for New Hires Onboarding," Linnaeus University Press, 2017.