The Role of Nutrients in Supporting The Immune System Against Viral Infection; Newly Emerged Coronavirus (COVID-19): A Narrative Review

Abstract = 1051 times | PDF = 208 times

Main Article Content

Halgord Ali Farag Hardi Rafat Baqi Yousif Taha Hussein Osama Hamid Shareef Syamand Ahmed Qadir Amany El Afifi Abdel Hamid El Bilbeisi

Abstract

Balanced nutrition is vital for peak performance of immune function, especially when a global pandemic is emerging, and there is major lack in approved treatments for it. Many nutrients and their abundance in cells induce immune function. We performed a narrative review to describe existing literature with regard to role of nutrients in supporting the immune system against viral infection including coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant articles. This review represents a picture of the current state of the art. In particular, we classified the nutrients by means of their types, abundance, importance and possible antiviral effects in immune system. The macronutrients such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are essential for cells to generate energy and participate in immune function as well. However, unbalanced diet with high levels of macromolecules could lead to chronic diseases that impair the body’s immune abilities. The micronutrients including vitamins and minerals participate in immune system on a bigger scale that almost all body’s immune mechanism depends on the expressions of micronutrients. Vitamins improve immune responses. Some vitamins include A, D, K, B, and C enroll in antiviral mechanism of the immune cells. A group of trace elements including zinc, copper, selenium, magnesium, manganese, and iron are heavily contributed in maintaining body’s immunity. The susceptibility toward the infectious diseases is highly elevated in cases of their deficiencies. Besides their antiviral roles, vitamins such as E and C with minerals in the cells adopt antioxidant properties that help immune cells to fight oxidative stress in the cells. Nevertheless, the high levels of minerals such as iron could threat the immune system by growing the oxidative stress. So, maintaining rich and balanced nutrition could improve body’s immune function, and possibly prevent viral infections including COVID-19.

Keywords

COVID-19, Nutrition, Viral infections, Vitamins and Minerals

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References

[1] Y. Yang, S. Islam, J. Wang, Y. Li, and X. Chen, “Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Patients Infected with 2019-New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A Review and Perspective,” vol. 16, 2020.
[2] “World Health Organization Influenza (Seasonal). Available online: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal) (accessed on Mar 2, 2020).” .
[3] N. Zhu et al., “A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019,” N Engl J Med, vol. 10, no. 1056, pp. 1–7, 2020.
[4] “U.S. Centers for Disease Control Take 3 Actions to Fight Flu. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/preventing.htm (accessed on Mar 2, 2020).”
[5] N. S. SCRIMSHAW, C. E. TAYLOR, and J. E. GORDON, “NUTRITION CLASSICS THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF THE,” vol. 237, pp. 367–403, 1968.
[6] P. Katona and J. Katona-apte, “The Interaction between Nutrition and Infection,” vol. 90024, 2008.
[7] M. A. Beck and O. A. Levander, “Host Nutritional Status and Its Effect on a Viral Pathogen,” J. Infect. Dis., vol. 182, pp. 93–96, 2000.
[8] A. Itoya et al., “AUDIT OF THE LIFESTYLE EFFECTS OF SCIG ON PATIENTS WITH,” Intern. Med. J., vol. 48, 2018.
[9] A. S. Bansal, A. S. Bradley, K. N. Bishop, S. Kiani-alikhan, and B. Ford, “Brain , Behavior , and Immunity Chronic fatigue syndrome , the immune system and viral infection,” Brain Behav. Immun., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 24–31, 2012.
[10] R. M. L. Colunga Luciano, M. Berrill, and P. E. Marik, “The antiviral properties of vitamin C,” Expert Rev. Anti. Infect. Ther., vol. 18, no. 0, pp. 99–101, 2020.
[11] M. J. Rytter, L. Kolte, A. Briend, H. Friis, and V. B. Christensen, “The Immune System in Children with Malnutrition — A Systematic Review,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 8, p. e105017, 2014.
[12] M. Gleeson, Exercise , nutrition and immunity. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013.
[13] Murphy, K.; Weaver, C. Janeway’s Immunobiology, 9th ed.; Taylor & Francis: New York, 2017; pp. 1 – 35. .
[14] Staines, N. Brostoff, J. and James,K. (1993). Introducing Immunology, 2nd Edition, Mosby, London. .
[15] N. Thomas et al., “The immune system as a biomonitor : explorations in innate and adaptive immunity,” Interface Focus, vol. 3, no. 2, 2013.
[16] A. C. Carr and S. Maggini, “Vitamin C and Immune Function,” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 1211, pp. 1–25, 2017.
[17] A. F. Gombart, A. Pierre, and S. Maggini, “A Review of Micronutrients and the Immune System – Working in Harmony to Reduce the Risk of Infection,” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 2–36, 2020.
[18] P. C. Calder and A. A. Jackson, “Undernutrition , infection and immune function,” Nutr. Res. Rev., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3–29, 2000.
[19] L. Zhang and Y. Liu, “Potential Interventions for Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systemic Review,” J. Med. Virol., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 479–90, 2020.
[20] K. Karacabey and N. Ozdemir, “Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy,” J. Obes. Weight Loss Ther., vol. 2, no. 9, 2012.
[21] J. Peake, “Immune system recovery after exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 1077–1087, 2017.
[22] G. Davison and M. Gleeson, “Infl uence of Acute Vitamin C and / or Carbohydrate Ingestion on Hormonal , Cytokine , and Immune Responses to Prolonged Exercise,” Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 465–479, 2005.
[23] D. C. Nieman et al., “Research in Sports Medicine : Influence of Carbohydrate on Immune Function Following 2 h Cycling,” Res. Sport Med., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 225–237, 2006.
[24] D. C. Nieman, “Immunonutrition support for athletes,” Nutr. Rev., vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 310–320, 2008.
[25] D. C. Nieman and S. H. Mitmesser, “Potential Impact of Nutrition on Immune System Recovery from Heavy Exertion : A Metabolomics Perspective,” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 513, 2017.
[26] “Queensland University of Technology.,” in Carbs during workouts help immune system recovery. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 01, May, 2020, from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170216103926.htm, 2017.
[27] N. Esser, S. Legrand-Poels, J. Piette, A. J. Scheen, and N. Paquot, “Inflammation as a link between obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 141–150, 2014.
[28] R. E. Smith, K. Tran, K. M. Richards, and R. Luo, “Dietary Carbohydrates that Modulate the Immune System,” Clin. Immunol. Endocr. Metab. Drugs, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2015.
[29] A. Nigam, “Consumption of fat in indian diet,” vol. 20, no. January 2000, pp. 58–61, 2000.
[30] M. J. Hubler and A. J. Kennedy, “ScienceDirect Role of lipids in the metabolism and activation of immune cells,” J. Nutr. Biochem., vol. 34, pp. 1–7, 2016.
[31] C. L. Kien and J. Y. Bunn, “Gender Alters the Effects of Palmitate and Oleate on Fat Oxidation and Energy Expenditure,” vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2008.
[32] E. Reticulum, S. Mediated, E. K. Anderson, A. A. Hill, and A. H. Hasty, “Cell Biology / Signaling Stearic Acid Accumulation in Macrophages Induces Toll- Like Receptor 4 / 2-Independent Inflammation Leading to,” 2015.
[33] A. Ito et al., “Cholesterol Accumulation in CD11c + Immune Cells Is a Causal and Targetable Factor in Autoimmune Article Cholesterol Accumulation in CD11c + Immune Cells Is a Causal and Targetable Factor in Autoimmune Disease,” Immunity, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1311–1326, 2016.
[34] R. Article, “Essential Fatty Acids, Immunity and Viral Infections,” pp. 145–151, 1990.
[35] E. Human and D. Ph, “Hypocholesterolemia Is Associated With Immune Dysfunction in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus-l Infection,” vol. 94, no. May, pp. 515–519, 1993.
[36] G. M. Suliman, S. A. Babiker, and H. M. Eichinger, “Effect of diet-protein source on lamb fattenin,” Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 403–408, 2007.
[37] V. Mehraj and J. Routy, “Tryptophan Catabolism in Chronic Viral Infections : Handling Uninvited Guests,” pp. 41–48, 2015.
[38] P. Taylor, M. Emadi, F. Jahanshiri, K. Kaveh, A. Ideris, and A. R. Alimon, “Nutrition and immunity : the effects of the combination of arginine and tryptophan on growth performance , serum parameters and immune response in broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease vaccine Nutrition and immunity : the effects of t,” no. April 2015, pp. 37–41, 2011.
[39] A. Beck, N. Carolina, and T. F. Porter, “The role of nutrition,” vol. 2863, no. 96, pp. 683–690, 1996.
[40] A. V Kurpad, “The requirements of protein & amino acid during acute & chronic infections,” no. August, pp. 129–148, 2006.
[41] A. W. Using, A. A. Randomized, P. Study, R. H. Clark, and G. Singh, “Communications Acquired,” pp. 133–139, 2014.
[42] J. Rappaport, J. Joseph, S. Croul, G. Alexander, and L. Del Valle, “Molecular pathway involved in HIV-1-induced CNS pathology : role of viral regulatory protein , Tat,” no. 406, 1999.
[43] S. A. Tanumihardjo, “Vitamin A : biomarkers of nutrition for development 1 – 4,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 658–665, 2011.
[44] L. Alvarez-rodriguez, M. Lopez-hoyos, M. Garcia-unzueta, J. A. Amado, and P. Mun, “Age and low levels of circulating vitamin D are associated with impaired innate immune function,” J. Leukoc. Biol., vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 829–838, 2012.
[45] B. Y. R. D. Semba, “Vitamin A and human immunodeficiency,” Proc. Nutr. Soc., vol. 56, no. 1B, pp. 459–469, 1997.
[46] F. AHMEDl, D. B. JONES’, and A. A. JACKSON, “Effect of vitamin A deficiency on the immune response to epizootic diarrhoea of infant mice ( EDIM ) rotavirus infection in mice,” Br. J. Nutr., vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 475–485, 1991.
[47] Y. Hm, M. Mao, and C. Wan, “Vitamin A for treating measles in children ( Review ),” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., vol. 5, pp. 85–86, 2005.
[48] C. R. Sudfeld, Ã. A. M. Navar, and N. A. Halsey, “Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment,” Int. J. Epidemiol., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2010.
[49] F. Q. Siddiqui, M. M. Ahmad, F. Kakar, S. Akhtar, and A. . Dil, “The role of vitamin A in enhancing humoral immunity produced by antirabies vaccine,” EMHJ - East. Mediterr. Heal. J., vol. 7, no. 4–5, pp. 799–804, 2001.
[50] S. B. Dadon and R. Reifen, “Vitamin A and the epigenome,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 2404–2411, 2017.
[51] S. Lin, P. Shu, C. Chang, A. Ng, C. Hu, and E. Alerts, “IL-4 Suppresses the Expression and the Replication of Hepatitis B Virus in the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line Hep3B,” J. Immunol., vol. 171, no. 9, pp. 4708–4716, 2003.
[52] A. De Lang, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, and B. L. Haagmans, “Interferon- γ and interleukin-4 downregulate expression of the SARS coronavirus receptor ACE2 in Vero E6 cells,” Virology, vol. 353, no. 2, pp. 474–481, 2006.
[53] D. A. Wahl et al., “A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations,” Arch. Osteoporos., vol. 7, no. 1–2, pp. 155–172, 2012.
[54] M. T. Zdrenghea, H. Makrinioti, C. Bagacean, A. Bush, S. L. Johnston, and L. A. Stanciu, “Vitamin D modulation of innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections,” Rev. Med. Virol., vol. 27, no. e1909, pp. 1–12, 2017.
[55] C. Palacios and L. Gonzalez, “Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?,” J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., vol. 144, pp. 138–145, 2013.
[56] T. Wang et al., “Direct and Indirect Induction by 1 , 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 of the Innate Immune Pathway Defective in Crohn Disease * □,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 285, no. 4, pp. 2227–2231, 2010.
[57] A. J. J. Cannell et al., “Epidemic influenza and vitamin D,” Epidemiol. Infect., vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 1129–1140, 2006.
[58] R. Jayawardena, P. Sooriyaarachchi, M. Chourdakis, C. Jeewandara, and P. Ranasinghe, “Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on COVID-19: A review,” Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Clin. Res. Rev., 2020.
[59] J. F. Arboleda and S. Urcuqui-inchima, “Vitamin D-Regulated MicroRNAs : Are They Protective Factors against Dengue Virus Infection ?,” Adv. Virol., vol. 2016, pp. 1–14, 2016.
[60] J. Teichmann et al., “Osteopenia in HIV-infected Women Prior to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,” J. Infect., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 221–227, 2003.
[61] E. Marcinowska-Suchowierska, M. Kupisz-Urbanska, J. Łukaszkiewicz, P. Płudowski, and G. Jones, “Vitamin D Toxicity – A Clinical Perspective,” Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)., vol. 9, no. September, p. 550, 2018.
[62] G. Esmat et al., “Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Sustained Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4,” J. Interf. Cytokine Res., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2015.
[63] N. X. Hoan et al., “Vitamin D deficiency and hepatitis viruses-associated liver diseases : a literature review,” World J. Gastroenterol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 445–460, 2018.
[64] B. Prietl, G. Treiber, T. R. Pieber, and K. Amrein, “Vitamin D and Immune Function,” Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 2502–2521, 2013.
[65] J. A. Beard, A. Bearden, and R. Striker, “Vitamin D and the anti-viral state,” J. Clin. Virol., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 194–200, 2011.
[66] S. Rizvi, ST. Raza, AA. Faizal Ahmed, S. Abbas, F. Mahdi “The role of vitamin E in human health and some diseases,” Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal., vol.14, no. 2, pp. e157, 2014.
[67] M. G. Hayek et al., “Vitamin E Supplementation Decreases Lung Virus Titers in Mice Infected with Influenza,” J. Infect. Dis., vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 273–276, 1997.
[68] E. D. Lewis, S. N. Meydani, and D. Wu, “Critical Review Regulatory Role of Vitamin E in the Immune System and In fl ammation,” IUBMB. Wiley Online Libr., pp. 487–494, 2018.
[69] M. P. Look et al., “Interferon / antioxidant combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C — a controlled pilot trial,” Antiviral Res., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 113–122, 1999.
[70] P. Andreone et al., “Vitamin E as treatment for chronic hepatitis B : results of a randomized controlled pilot trial,” Antiviral Res., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 75–81, 2001.
[71] A. V. Herbay, W. Stahl, C. Niederau, and H. Sies, “Vitamin E Improves the Aminotransferase Status of Patients Suffering from Viral Hepatitis C: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study,” Free Radic. Res., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 599–605, 1997.
[72] S. N. Han et al., “Vitamin E supplementation increases T helper 1 cytokine production in old mice infected with in ¯ uenza virus,” Immunolgy, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 487–493, 2000.
[73] S. N. Han and S. N. Meydani, “Antioxidants , Cytokines , and Influenza Infection in Aged Mice,” J. Infect. Dis., vol. 182, no. s1, pp. 74–80, 2000.
[74] R. Sgarbanti et al., “Intracellular Redox State as Target for Anti-Influenza Therapy : Are Antioxidants Always Effective ?,” Curr. Top. Med. Chem., vol. 14, no. 22, pp. 2529–2541, 2014.
[75] N. Namazi and B. Larijani, “Vitamin K and the Immune System,” Nutr. Immun., pp. 75–79, 2019.
[76] Y. Ohsaki, H. Shirakawa, K. Hiwatashi, Y. Furukawa, Mi. Takeo, and M. Komai, “Vitamin K Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in the Rat Vitamin K Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in the Rat,” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 926–932, 2006.
[77] R. Checker, D. Sharma, S. K. Sandur, and N. M. Khan, “Vitamin K3 suppressed infl ammatory and immune responses in a redox-dependent manner,” Free Radic. Res., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 975–985, 2011.
[78] S. Tanaka et al., “Vitamin K 3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor- k B activation,” Clin. Exp. Immunol., vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 283–292, 2010.
[79] M.-H. Pan et al., “Inhibition of TNF-α,IL-1α, and IL-1β by Pretreatment of Human Monocyte-DerivedMacrophages with Menaquinone-7 and Cell Activation with TLRAgonists In Vitro,” J. Med. Food, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 663–669, 2016.
[80] E. Usedom, L. Neidig, and H. B. Allen, “Psoriasis and Fat-soluble Vitamins : A Review,” J. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. Res., vol. 8, no. 5, 2017.
[81] E. Parlak, A. Ertürk, Y. Çağ, E. Sebin, and M. Gümüşdere, “The effect of inflammatory cytokines and the level of vitamin D on prognosis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever,” Int J Clin Exp Med, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 18302–18310, 2015.
[82] R. Espín-palazón, A. Martínez-lópez, F. J. Roca, and A. López-, “TNF α Impairs Rhabdoviral Clearance by Inhibiting the Host Autophagic Antiviral Response,” PLOS Pathog., vol. 12, no. 6, p. e1005699, 2016.
[83] A. S. Using and M. Lacking, “Tumor Necrosis Factor- (TNF-) Plays a Protective Role in Acute Viral Myocarditis in Mice A Study Using Mice Lacking TNF-␣,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 743–750, 2001.
[84] S. H. Seo, O. Goloubeva, and R. Webby, “Characterization of a Porcine Lung Epithelial Cell Line Suitable for Influenza Virus Studies,” J. Virol., vol. 75, no. 19, pp. 9517–9525, 2001.
[85] A. M. Blom, B. O. Villoutreix, and B. Dahlbäck, “Complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein — friend or foe in the innate immune system ?,” Mol. Immunol., vol. 40, no. 18, pp. 1333–1346, 2004.
[86] K. Yoshii, K. Hosomi, K. Sawane, and J. Kunisawa, “Metabolism of Dietary and Microbial Vitamin B Family in the Regulation of Host Immunity,” Front. Nutr., vol. 6, no. 48, 2019.
[87] A. E. Axelrod and S. Hopper, “Effects of Pantothenic Acid , Pyridoxine and Thiamine Deficiencies upon Antibody Formation to Influenza Virus PR-8 in Rats1,” J. Nutr., vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 325–330, 1960.
[88] J. Tamura et al., “Immunomodulation by vitamin B12 : augmentation of CD8 þ T lymphocytes and natural killer ( NK ) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12,” Clin. Exp. Immunol., vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 1999.
[89] M. Zheng et al., “Functional exhaustion of antiviral lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients,” Cell. Mol. Immunol., pp. 7–9, 2020.
[90] “The Involvement of Natural Killer Cells in the Pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol., vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 507–511, 2004.
[91] Y. Li, H. E. Schellhorn, and A. Szent-gyorgyi, “New Developments and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives for Vitamin C 1 , 2,” J. Nutr., vol. 137, no. 10, pp. 2171–2184, 2007.
[92] Y. Kim et al., “Vitamin C Is an Essential Factor on the Anti-viral Immune Responses through the Production of Interferon- α / β at the Initial Stage of Influenza A Virus ( H3N2 ) Infection,” Immune Netw., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 70–74, 2013.
[93] M. Wu, M. He, and Y. Kang, “Vitamin C supplementation improved the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine,” food Agric. Immunol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 470–483, 2018.
[94] W. Li, N. Maeda, and M. A. Beck, “Vitamin C Deficiency Increases the Lung Pathology of Influenza Virus – Infected,” Br. J. Nutr., vol. 136, no. 10, pp. 2611–2616, 2006.
[95] S. Alcocer, E. Bonilla, N. Valero, J. Salazar, and A. Melchor, “Melatonin , minocycline and ascorbic acid reduce oxidative stress and viral titers and increase survival rate in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis,” brain Res., vol. 16, no. 22, pp. 368–376, 2015.
[96] A. Lallement, C. Zandotti, and P. Brouqui, “Persistent parvovirus B19 viremia with chronic arthralgia treated with ascorbic acid : a case report,” J. Med. Case Rep., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 9–12, 2015.
[97] H. Hemilä, “Does Vitamin C Alleviate the Symptoms of the Common Cold ? - A Review of Current Evidence Does Vitamin C Alleviate the Symptoms of the Common,” Scand. J. Infect. Dis., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1994.
[98] H. Hemilä, E. Chalker, and B. Douglas, “Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold ( Review ),” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2007.
[99] A. A. Fowler et al., “Intravenous vitamin C as adjunctive therapy for enterovirus/rhinovirus induced acute respiratory distress syndrome,” World J. Crit. Care Med., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2017.
[100] M. A. Beck, Q. Shi, M. Virginia C, and O. A. Levander, “Rapid genomic evolution of a non-virulent Coxsackievirus B3 in selenium-deficient mice results in selection of identical virulent isolates,” Nat. Med., vol. 1, pp. 433–436, 1995.
[101] A. J. W. te Velthuis, S. H. E. van den Worml, A. C. Sims, R. S. Baric, E. J. Snijder, and M. J. van Hemert, “Zn2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture,” PLoS Pathog., vol. 6, no. 11, 2010.
[102] S. A. Read, S. Obeid, C. Ahlenstiel, and G. Ahlenstiel, “The Role of Zinc in Antiviral Immunity,” Adv. Nutr., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 696–710, 2019.
[103] P. J. Fraker, P. DePasquale-Jardieu, C. M. Zwickl, and R. W. Luecke, “Regeneration of T-cell helper function in zinc-deficient adult mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 75, no. 11, pp. 5660–5664, 1978.
[104] P. J. Fraker, M. E. Gershwin, R. A. Good, and A. Prasad, “Interrelationships between zinc and immune function.,” Fed. Proc., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1474–1479, Apr. 1986.
[105] J. A. Acevedo-Murillo, M. L. Garcia Leon, V. Firo-Reyes, J. L. Santiago-Cordova, A. P. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, and R. M. Wong-Chew, “Zinc Supplementation Promotes a Th1 Response and Improves Clinical Symptoms in Fewer Hours in Children With Pneumonia Younger Than 5 Years Old. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.,” Front. Pediatr., vol. 7, p. 431, 2019.
[106] J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “The significance of zinc for humoral and cellular immunity.,” J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–8, Mar. 1989.
[107] C. T. Walsh, H. H. Sandstead, A. S. Prasad, P. M. Newberne, and P. J. Fraker, “Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s.,” Environ. Health Perspect., vol. 102 Suppl, pp. 5–46, Jun. 1994.
[108] L. Schlesinger, M. Arevalo, S. Arredondo, B. Lonnerdal, and A. Stekel, “Zinc supplementation impairs monocyte function.,” Acta Paediatr., vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 734–738, Sep. 1993.
[109] C. Li, Y. Li, and C. Ding, “The role of copper homeostasis at the host-pathogen axis: From bacteria to fungi,” Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2019.
[110] D. Miyamoto et al., “Thujaplicin-copper chelates inhibit replication of human influenza viruses.,” Antiviral Res., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 89–100, Aug. 1998.
[111] J. C. Rupp et al., “Host Cell Copper Transporters CTR1 and ATP7A are important for Influenza A virus replication.,” Virol. J., vol. 14, no. 1, p. 11, Jan. 2017.
[112] J. R. Stabel, J. W. Spears, and T. T. J. Brown, “Effect of copper deficiency on tissue, blood characteristics, and immune function of calves challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Pasteurella hemolytica.,” J. Anim. Sci., vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1247–1255, May 1993.
[113] J. Prohaska and M. Failla, Copper and immunity. In Nutrition and Immunology. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1993.
[114] J. R. Turnlund et al., “Long-term high copper intake: effects on indexes of copper status, antioxidant status, and immune function in young men.,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 1037–1044, Jun. 2004.
[115] D. S. Kelley, P. A. Daudu, P. C. Taylor, B. E. Mackey, and J. R. Turnlund, “Effects of low-copper diets on human immune response.,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 412–416, Aug. 1995.
[116] M. P. Rayman, “Selenium and human health.,” Lancet (London, England), vol. 379, no. 9822, pp. 1256–1268, Mar. 2012.
[117] J. Chaudiere, E. C. Wilhelmsen, and A. L. Tappel, “Mechanism of selenium-glutathione peroxidase and its inhibition by mercaptocarboxylic acids and other mercaptans.,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 259, no. 2, pp. 1043–1050, Jan. 1984.
[118] K. B. Beckman and B. N. Ames, “Oxidative decay of DNA.,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 272, no. 32, pp. 19633–19636, Aug. 1997.
[119] C. S. Broome et al., “An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status.,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 154–162, Jul. 2004.
[120] K. Ivory et al., “Selenium supplementation has beneficial and detrimental effects on immunity to influenza vaccine in older adults.,” Clin. Nutr., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 407–415, Apr. 2017.
[121] W. C. Hawkes, A. Hwang, and Z. Alkan, “The effect of selenium supplementation on DTH skin responses in healthy North American men.,” J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 272–280, 2009.
[122] S. Chandra and R. K. Chandra, “Nutrition, immune response, and outcome.,” Prog. Food Nutr. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1–2, pp. 1–65, 1986.
[123] M. Tam, S. Gómez, M. González-Gross, and A. Marcos, “Possible roles of magnesium on the immune system,” Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1193–1197, 2003.
[124] B. Chaigne-Delalande et al., “Mg2+ regulates cytotoxic functions of NK and CD8 T cells in chronic EBV infection through NKG2D.,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6142, pp. 186–191, Jul. 2013.
[125] R.-Y. Liang, W. Wu, J. Huang, S.-P. Jiang, and Y. Lin, “Magnesium affects the cytokine secretion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in acute asthma.,” J. Asthma, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1012–1015, Dec. 2012.
[126] K. J. Horning, S. W. Caito, K. G. Tipps, A. B. Bowman, and M. Aschner, “Manganese Is Essential for Neuronal Health,” Annu. Rev. Nutr., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 71–108, Jul. 2015.
[127] G. F. Kwakye, M. M. B. Paoliello, S. Mukhopadhyay, A. B. Bowman, and M. Aschner, “Manganese-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease: Shared and distinguishable features,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 7519–7540, 2015.
[128] C. Wang et al., “Manganese Increases the Sensitivity of the cGAS-STING Pathway for Double-Stranded DNA and Is Required for the Host Defense against DNA Viruses,” Immunity, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 675-687.e7, 2018.
[129] K. J. Waldron, J. C. Rutherford, D. Ford, and N. J. Robinson, “Metalloproteins and metal sensing,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7257, pp. 823–830, 2009.
[130] H. Haase, “Innate Immune Cells Speak Manganese,” Immunity, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 616–618, 2018.
[131] L. Zhang and Y. Liu, “Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review,” J. Med. Virol., vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 479–490, 2020.
[132] A. Soyano and M. Gomez, “[Role of iron in immunity and its relation with infections].,” Arch. Latinoam. Nutr., vol. 49, no. 3 Suppl 2, pp. 40S-46S, Sep. 1999.
[133] M. U. Imam, S. Zhang, J. Ma, H. Wang, and F. Wang, “Antioxidants mediate both iron homeostasis and oxidative stress,” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1–19, 2017.
[134] M. Wessling-Resnick, “Crossing the Iron Gate: Why and How Transferrin Receptors Mediate Viral Entry,” Annu. Rev. Nutr., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 431–458, 2018.
[135] P. George, “A comparison of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase, ferrous and ferric ions, haemin and ferrous phthalocyanine.,” Biochem. J., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 287–295, 1948.
[136] J. A. A. S. Jayaweera, M. Reyes, and A. Joseph, “Childhood iron deficiency anemia leads to recurrent respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis,” Sci. Rep., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2019.