Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Breast Cancer among Kurdish Women in Sulaimani Governorate/ Iraq

Abstract = 19 times | PDF = 117 times

Main Article Content

Bekhal Abdalwahid Amin Muhammed Babakir-Mina Fadhil Ahmed Mohialdeen Mohammed I. M. Gubari


Breast cancer is a devastating affliction, the frequency of which is gradually increasing all over the world. Cancer may be cured if properly intervened at the right time. The correct treatment, aided by professionals and the right technology can provide critical life support to breast cancer patients. This study was conducted to assessment knowledge, attitude and practice of breast cancer among Kurdish females visited Maternity Teaching Hospital in Sulaimani. A face-to-face interview through a question¬naire to assessment of knowledge and practices toward breast cancer of 500 non-breast cancer women visited Maternity Teaching Hospital was done. Data were computerized and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS, version 22). P-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Out of 500 participants in the current study on knowledge and practices toward breast cancer among non-breast cancer women, consequently were 227 (45.4%) and 201 (40.2%) practiced breast self-examination(BSE) and clinical breast examination respectively. In this study the participants having no symptoms and lack of knowledge about how to do BSE where regarded as the barriers of not practicing BSE (44.7%, 55.3%) respectively. The most common reason for not doing clinical breast examination (CBE) is fear of the outcome and no sign & symptom of breast cancer (28.8%, 61.9%) respectively. The high education level showed significantly more knowledge of breast self-examination and mammography than Illiterate women P≤ 0.001 and P≤ 0.03 respectively. On the other hand, the high education level women showed significantly more practice of breast self-examination P≤ 0.001. In conclusion, the present study found the facts to the inadequate knowledge of female about breast cancer and recognized the negative influence of low knowledge on the practice of BSE, CBE and mammography and the breast cancer incidence. Therefore, more determinations are needed to develop a positive attitude toward BSE, CBE and mammography screening and practice in Sulaimani.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] A. Sadjadi, M. Nouraie, A. Ghorbani, M. Alimohammadian, and R. Malekzadeh, "Epidemiology of breast cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran: first results from a population-based cancer registry," 2009.
[2] F. Bray, P. McCarron, and D. M. Parkin, "The changing global patterns of female breast cancer incidence and mortality," Breast Cancer Research, vol. 6, p. 229, 2004.
[3] D. Parkin, S. Whelan, J. Ferlay, L. Raymond, and J. Young, "Cancer incidence in five continents. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon: Vol. VII," ed: IARC Scientific publications, 1997.
[4] A. Jemal, M. M. Center, C. DeSantis, and E. M. Ward, "Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends," Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, vol. 19, pp. 1893-1907, 2010.
[5] K. Hajian Tilaki, A. Firozjaii, and M. Kia, "Pattern of age distribution of different cancers in Babol," J Res Med, vol. 27, pp. 239-45, 2001.
[6] A. Ramirez, A. Westcombe, C. Burgess, S. Sutton, P. Littlejohns, and M. Richards, "Factors predicting delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancer: a systematic review," The Lancet, vol. 353, pp. 1127-1131, 1999.
[7] M. Richards, A. Westcombe, S. Love, P. Littlejohns, and A. Ramirez, "Influence of delay on survival in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review," The Lancet, vol. 353, pp. 1119-1126, 1999.
[8] O. O. T. O. Odusanya, Olumuyiwa, "Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and practice among nurses in Lagos, Nigeria," Acta Oncologica, vol. 40, pp. 844-848, 2001.
[9] C. J. Maxwell, C. M. Bancej, and J. Snider, "Predictors of mammography use among Canadian women aged 50–69: findings from the 1996/97 National Population Health Survey," Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 164, pp. 329-334, 2001.
[10] J. Philip, W. G. Harris, C. Flaherty, and C. A. F. Joslin, "Clinical measures to assess the practice and efficiency of breast self‐examination," Cancer, vol. 58, pp. 973-977, 1986.
[11] M. Montella, A. Crispo, G. D'aiuto, M. De Marco, G. De Bellis, G. Fabbrocini, et al., "Determinant factors for diagnostic delay in operable breast cancer patients," European journal of cancer prevention, vol. 10, pp. 53-59, 2001.
[12] N. C. Facione, C. Miaskowski, M. J. Dodd, and S. M. Paul, "The self-reported likelihood of patient delay in breast cancer: new thoughts for early detection," Preventive medicine, vol. 34, pp. 397-407, 2002.
[13] A. Hamdoon," Appraisal of breast self-examination in early detection of breast tumor". In Community Medicine department. Mosul University/ Iraq Press,pp 31-5,1996.Master thesis.
[14] T. T. Amin, A. Al Mulhim, and A. Al Meqihwi, "Breast cancer knowledge, risk factors and screening among adult Saudi women in a primary health care setting," Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, vol. 10, pp. 133-8, 2009.
[15] C. A. Adebamowo and O. Ajayi, "Breast cancer in Nigeria," West African journal of medicine, vol. 19, pp. 179-191, 2000.
[16] O. Odusanya, "Breast cancer: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of female schoolteachers in Lagos, Nigeria," The breast journal, vol. 7, pp. 171-175, 2001.
[17] C. A. Adebamowo and O. Ajayi, "Breast cancer in Nigeria," West African journal of medicine, vol. 19, pp. 179-191, 2000.
[18] A. McTiernan, "Behavioral risk factors in breast cancer: can risk be modified?," The oncologist, vol. 8, pp. 326-334, 2003.
[19] E. Uche, "Cancer awareness among a Nigerian population," Tropical doctor, vol. 29, pp. 39-40, 1999.
[20] W. Petro‐Nustus and B. I. Mikhail, "Factors Associated with Breast Self‐Examination Among Jordanian Women," Public Health Nursing, vol. 19, pp. 263-271, 2002.
[21] R. Visvanathan," Breast cancer in Nigeria women". British Journal of Surgery,vol.80,pp.126-209,1993.
[22] M. Haji‐Mahmoodi, A. Montazeri, S. Jarvandi, M. Ebrahimi, S. Haghighat, and I. Harirchi, "Breast Self‐Examination: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Female Health Care Workers in Tehran, Iran," The breast journal, vol. 8, pp. 222-225, 2002.
[23] R. C. Katz, K. Meyers, and J. Walls, "Cancer awareness and self-examination practices in young men and women," Journal of behavioral medicine, vol. 18, pp. 377-384, 1995.
[24] A. Yücel, B. DEĞİRMENCİ, M. Acar, H. Elli̇dokuz, R. Albayrak, and A. Haktanir, "Knowledge about breast cancer and mammography in breast cancer screening among women awaiting mammography," Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 35, pp. 35-42, 2005.
[25] M. A. Gonzaga, E. Kiguli-Malwadde, B. Francis, and B. Rosemary, "Current knowledge, attitudes and practices of expectant women toward routine sonography in pregnancy at Naguru health centre, Uganda," The Pan African medical journal, vol. 3, 2009.
[26] U. Gwarzo, K. Sabitu, and S. Idris, "Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate students," Annals of African medicine, vol. 8, 2009.
[27] A. A. Alsaif, "Breast self-examination among Saudi female nursing students in Saudi Arabia," Saudi Med J, vol. 25, pp. 1574-8, 2004.
[28] N. Jaradeen, "Breast cancer risk-factors and breast self- examination practice among Jordanian women," Bahrain Medical Bulletin, vol. 32, pp. 1-7, 2010.
[29] R. A. Al-Naggar, D. H. Al-Naggar, Y. V. Bobryshev, R. Chen, and A. Assabri, "Practice and barriers toward breast self-examination among young Malaysian women," Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, vol. 12, pp. 1173-1178, 2011.
[30] WA. Milaat," Knowledge of secondary school students on breast cancer and BSE in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia". Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 6, pp.338–343, 2000.
[31] G. R. Sadler, C. M. Ko, J. A. Cohn, M. White, R.-n. Weldon, and P. Wu, "Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program," BMC public health, vol. 7, p. 57, 2007.
[32] V. Ho, J. M. Yamal, E. N. Atkinson, K. Basen-Engquist, G. Tortolero-Luna, and M. Follen, "Predictors of breast and cervical screening in Vietnamese women in Harris County, Houston, Texas," Cancer nursing, vol. 28, pp. 119-129, 2005.
[33] P. Yavari and M. A. Pourhoseingholi, "Socioeconomic factors association with knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among Iranian women," Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, vol. 8, pp. 618-22, 2007.
[34] S. SalimiPormehr, N. Kariman, Z. Sheykhan, and H. AlaviMajd, "Investigation of breast cancer screening tests performance and affecting factors in women referred to Ardebil’s health and medical centers, 2009," Journal of Ardabil University of medical sciences, vol. 10, pp. 310-318, 2010.
[35] T.-Y. Wu, B. West, Y.-W. Chen, and C. Hergert, "Health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in Filipino, Chinese and Asian-Indian women," Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 30, pp. 58-66, 2006.