Assessing Soil Tolerance Limit for Two Soil Orders Surrounding Sulaimani City

Abstract = 167 times | PDF = 38 times

Main Article Content

Marwa Abubakr Ahmed Kamal Sharif Qadir


This research was conducted to determined Soil loss tolerance limit (SLTL) which used for soil and water conservation projects and assessing the potential risk of soil erosion. In this study, two different sites were selected including Bakrajo and Qallachwalan were located 9.4 and 23.7 km far from Sulaimani city respectively. The soil orders in the two studied sites were determined through describing the soil profile properties which were known as Vertisols and Mollisols respectively. Each site was divided into 16 sub-sites using the grid point system. The dimension of each site was (2.5*2.5 km). The estimated soil tolerance limit for whole grid points except one grid point at Bakrajo site was equal to 12.5 (Mg/ ha/ yr), while at Qallachwalan in a wide range as 2.5-10 (Mg/ ha/ yr). The mentioned results of soil tolerance limit explained that the Bakrajo site is more resistant to the risk of water erosion compared to Qallachwalan site which was known as a rugged area. Besides the most soil depth of the grid points at Qallachwalan was shallow did not exceed 50 cm. So the Qallachwalan site needs several processes conservation planning than the Bakrajo site which known as more deep and flatty soil.


Soil loss tolerance limit, biophysical model, land degradation, soil erosion, soil erodibility factor, saturation hydraulic conductivity.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] R. Lal, "Degradation and resilience of soils," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, vol. 352, pp. 997-1010, 1997.
[2] H. Moehansyah, B. L. Maheshwari, and J. Armstrong, "Field evaluation of selected soil erosion models for catchment management in Indonesia," Biosystems Engineering, vol. 88, pp. 491-506, 2004.
[3] E. Karas and I. Oguz, "A new approach to determine land use planning and soil conservation measures based on soil erosion classification," Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 10, pp. 145-158, 2015.
[4] D. D. Bai ZG, Olsson L, Schaepman ME, "Global assessment of land degradation and improvement, identification by remote sensing," Wageningen Report 2008/01, ISRIIC, 2008.
[5] C. DeLong, R. Cruse, and J. Wiener, "The soil degradation paradox: Compromising our resources when we need them the most," Sustainability, vol. 7, pp. 866-879, 2015.
[6] A. Shiferaw, "Estimating soil loss rates for soil conservation planning in the Borena Woreda of South Wollo Highlands, Ethiopia," Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol. 13, pp. 87-106, 2011.
[7] D. O. Mohammed, "Soil tolerance limit as a useful guide for prioritization of conservation planning of selected watersheds in Chamchamal area," M.Sc, soil and water sciences, University of sulaimani, College of agricultural sciences, 2017.
[8] R. Lal, Soil conservation for C sequestration. West lafayette, 2001.
[9] D. a. C. W. M. Gabriels, "Human-indused land degradation. land use, land cover and soil sciences," UNESCO-EOLSS, vol. 3,2002, 2002.
[10] A. Conacher, "Land degradation and desertification: history, nature, causes, consequences, and solutions," Theme, vol. 6, 2004.
[11] S. K. Jain, S. Kumar, and J. Varghese, "Estimation of soil erosion for a Himalayan watershed using GIS technique," Water Resources Management, vol. 15, pp. 41-54, 2001.
[12] D. Pimentel, "Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat," Environment, development and sustainability, vol. 8, pp. 119-137, 2006.
[13] N. Gupta, Zahn. M.M. Coppens, K.A. Joiner and D.R. voelker, and j., "Biochem. 2005," p. 163, Apr 22; 280(16) 2005.
[14] D. Mandal and K. Tripathi, "Soil erosion limits for Lakshadweep Archipelago," Current Science (00113891), vol. 96, 2009.
[15] A. T. O'geen and L. J. Schwankl, "Understanding soil erosion in irrigated agriculture," 2006.
[16] A. Novara, L. Gristina, F. Guaitoli, A. Santoro, and A. Cerdà, "Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards," Solid Earth, vol. 4, pp. 255-262, 2013.
[17] G. Zhao, X. Mu, Z. Wen, F. Wang, and P. Gao, "Soil erosion, conservation, and eco‐environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China," Land Degradation & Development, vol. 24, pp. 499-510, 2013.
[18] X. Duan, X. Shi, Y. Li, R. Li, and D. Fen, "A new method to calculate soil loss tolerance for sustainable soil productivity in farmland. Agron," Sustain. Dev, vol. 37, 2017.
[19] D. Mandal and V. Sharda, "Assessment of permissible soil loss in India employing a quantitative bio-physical model," Current Science(Bangalore), vol. 100, pp. 383-390, 2011.
[20] D. McCormack, K. Young, and L. Kimberlin, "Current criteria for determining soil loss tolerance," Determinants of soil loss tolerance, pp. 95-111, 1982.
[21] J. Botschek, P. Sauerborn, A. Skowronek, and R. Wolff, "Tolerierbarer Bodenabtrag und Bodenbildung—Konzepte und Perspektiven," Mitt. Dtsch. Bodenkdl. Ges, vol. 83, pp. 87-90, 1997.
[22] R. Lal, "Agronomic consequences of soil erosion," Soil erosion at multiple scales, 1998.
[23] S. USDA, "National soils handbook," Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC, USA, 1973.
[24] N. K. Lenka, D. Mandal, and S. Sudhishri, "Permissible soil loss limits for different physiographic regions of West Bengal," Current Science, pp. 665-670, 2014.
[25] J. Poesen and H. Lavee, "Rock fragments in top soils: significance and processes," Catena, vol. 23, pp. 1-28, 1994.
[26] D. Mandal, K. Dadhwal, O. Khola, and B. Dhyani, "Adjusted T values for conservation planning in Northwest Himalayas of India," Journal of soil and water conservation, vol. 61, pp. 391-397, 2006.
[27] K. S. Hussein, "Conservation planning for Bastura catchment based on detection of erosion risk prone areas " M.Sc, soil and water sciences, University of salahaddin college of agricultural scienes, 2016.
[28] L. C. Johnson, "Soil loss tolerance: fact or myth?," Journal of soil and water conservation, vol. 42, pp. 155-160, 1987.
[29] NRCS, "The soil tolerance limit was computed for each site on the basis of soil group versus depth matrix," ed, 1999.
[30] J. Kessler and R. Oosterbaan, "Determining hydraulic conductivity of soils," Drainage principles and applications, vol. 3, pp. 252-296, 1974.
[31] A. Klute, Water retention: Laboratory methods, Klute ( ed.) ed. Maddison WI, 1986.
[32] G. R. A. a. H. Blake., K.H, Bulk density in method of soil analysis, Part physical and mineralogical methods. 2nd 1986.
[33] L. Allison, "Organic Carbon 1," Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, pp. 1367-1378, 1965.
[34] M. Jackson, "Soil chemical analysis prentice Hall," Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, vol. 498, 1958.
[35] W. H. Wischmeier and D. D. Smith, Predicting rainfall erosion losses: a guide to conservation planning: Science and Education Administration, US Department of Agriculture, 1978.
[36] K. S. Qadir, "Study of erodibility of soils in Iraqi Kurdistan region," As a partial fulfillment of the requerments for the degree of master of science, A thesis submitted to the council of college of agriculture University of Sulaimani, 2001.
[37] T. C. a. B. Baruah, H.P. , A textbook of soil analysis. Vishal Printers, Delhi110032., 1999.
[38] S. S. Staff, "Soil Survey Mnual," Bureau of Plant Industry, 1969.
[39] P. Bhattacharyya, D. Mandal, V. Bhatt, and R. Yadav, "A quantitative methodology for estimating soil loss tolerance limits for three states of northern India," Journal of sustainable agriculture, vol. 35, pp. 276-292, 2011.