Thyroid disorders among patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract = 188 times | PDF = 94 times

Main Article Content

Mariwan Abdulla Hama Salih

Abstract

Recently hospitals are full of patient suffering from several chronic diseases. Two of these diseases are Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Thyroid diseases. DM is a chronic disease characterized by irregular abnormal elevation of blood glucose level. It is classified in to several types depending on the situation; the major types are type I and type II. Thyroid disease is an endocrine disease which characterized by over production or decrease in production of thyroid hormones by thyroid glands. The main function of thyroid hormones is the regulation of body metabolism. Both of diseases are endocrine disease. These diseases currently the major hurdle among patient and become the great challenge in front of government capability to fight the problem. These data were collected between the last months of 2017 to the 15th of April 2018 from overall 300 patients. All the information has been collected from Diabetic and Endocrine Center, Shorsh Hospital and Medical DAIK Group in Sulaiman city. In total of 300 patients, Twenty five percent 25% of patients have both diabetes and thyroid disease. Fifty nine percent 59% of patients only have diabetes without any sign of thyroid problem, and finally only Sixteen percent 16% were have thyroid problem again without any evidence of having diabetes signs. This study showed that from the collection of (300) patients, seventy five (75) patients have both diabetes mellitus and thyroid diorders, these are more predominance in overage 40 years of mostly females, illiterate and housewife that mostly were insulaimani city.

Keywords

Diabetes Mellitus, Thyroid Disorders, DM and Thyroid Diseases.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References

[1] Arthur Guyton and John E Hall, Text Book of Medical Physiology, 11 ed. Pennsylvania, 2006.
[2] S. H. Golden, A. Brown, J. A. Cauley, M. H. Chin, T. L. Gary-Webb, C. Kim, J. A. Sosa, A. E. Sumner, and B. Anton, "Health disparities in endocrine disorders: biological, clinical, and nonclinical factors--an Endocrine Society scientific statement," The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, vol. 97, pp. E1579-E1639, 2012.
[3] A. American Diabetes, "Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus," Diabetes care, vol. 33 Suppl 1, pp. S62-S69, 2010.
[4] T. M. E. Team, "Diabetes: Symptoms, causes, and treatments," in Merical News Today . ed, 2017.
[5] W. Sami, T. Ansari, N. S. Butt, and M. R. A. Hamid, "Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review," International journal of health sciences, vol. 11, pp. 65-71, Apr-Jun 2017.
[6] S. S. Bassuk and J. E. Manson, "Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease," Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 99, pp. 1193-1204, 2005.
[7] e. a. Bharat, "Thyroid Status in Diabetes Mellitus," Glycomics & Lipidomics, vol. 3, p. 4, 2013.
[8] M. B. Barmpari, et al., . , "Thyroid Dysfunction among Greek Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as Disregarded Comorbidity," Journal of diabetes research, vol. 7, p. , 2017.
[9] L. Chaker, et al., "Thyroid function and risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based prospective cohort study," BMC Medicine, vol. 14, p. 150, 2016.
[10] Mirella Hage, Mira S. Zantout, and Sami T. Azar, "Thyroid Disorders and Diabetes Mellitus," Journal of Thyroid Research, pp. 439-463, 2011.
[11] M.-C. Lu, S.-C. Chang, K.-Y. Huang, M. Koo, and N.-S. Lai, "Higher Risk of Thyroid Disorders in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A 12-Year Nationwide, Population-Based, Retrospective Cohort Study," PloS one, vol. 11, pp. e0152168-e0152168, 2016.
[12] E. Almekinder, . (2018). The Relationship Between Diabetes And Thyroid Disorder.
[13] A. Krzewska and I. Ben-Skowronek, "Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents," BioMed research international, vol. 2016, pp. 6219730-6219730, 2016.
[14] Y. Tang, T. Yan, G. Wang, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Z. Jiang, M. Yang, C. Li, Z. Li, P. Yu, S. Wang, N. Zhu, Q. Ren, and C. Ni, "Correlation between Insulin Resistance and Thyroid Nodule in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus," International journal of endocrinology, vol. 2017, pp. 1617458-1617458, 2017.
[15] S. U. Ogbonna and I. U. Ezeani, "Risk Factors of Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus," Frontiers in endocrinology, vol. 10, pp. 440-440, 2019.
[16] C. Wang, "The Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Related Thyroid Diseases," Journal of diabetes research, vol. 2013, pp. 390534-390534, 2013.
[17] M. Nishi, "Diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases," Diabetology international, vol. 9, pp. 108-112, 2018.
[18] Particia W. Thyroid Disorders and Diabetes Diabetes self-management [Online]. Available: https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/about-diabetes/general-diabetes-information/thyroid-disorders-and-diabetes/
[19] W. Zhao, X. Li, X. Liu, L. Lu, and Z. Gao, "Thyroid Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy: A Single Center Study," Journal of Thyroid Research, vol. 2018, pp. 9507028-9507028, 2018.
[20] V. Witting, D. Bergis, D. Sadet, and K. Badenhoop, "Thyroid disease in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective study," Thyroid Research, vol. 7, pp. 2-2, 2014.
[21] M. J. Smithson, "Screening for thyroid dysfunction in a community population of diabetic patients," Diabetic Medicine, vol. 15, pp. 148-150, 1998.
[22] P. Talwalkar, V. Deshmukh, and M. Bhole, "Prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in India: a cross-sectional observational study," Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy, vol. 12, pp. 369-376, 2019.
[23] C. L. Fisher, D. M. Mannino, W. H. Herman, and H. Frumkin, "Cigarette smoking and thyroid hormone levels in males," International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 26, pp. 972-977, 1997.
[24] R.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Chen, K.-M. Man, S.-J. Chen, W. Chen, P.-L. Liu, Y.-H. Chen, and W.-C. Chen, "Thyroid diseases increased the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A nation-wide cohort study," Medicine, vol. 98, pp. e15631-e15631, 2019.
[25] J. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, J. H. Lee, I. R. Park, J. S. Moon, J. S. Yoon, I.-K. Lee, K. C. Won, and H. W. Lee, "Poor glycemic control is associated with the risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus," The Korean journal of internal medicine, vol. 31, pp. 703-711, 2016.