Effect of Gyttja and Nitrogen Applications on Growth and Flowering of Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L.) Plant in the Two Soils Depth

Abstract = 36 times | PDF = 59 times

Main Article Content

Ardalan J Mjeed Mariwan A. Ali


Plant morphological attribute has been reported to be increased through the application of organic material (Gyttja) to the soil. Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L.) was studied under plastic house conditions to determine the effect of two different soil depth-SH (0-20 cm and 20- 40 cm), four different gyttja doses-GD (0, 1, 2, and 3%), and three different nitrogen doses-ND (0, 140, and 280 mg kg-1) on some of the plant’s morphological characters;  Plant Height (PH), Fresh Weight Per Plant (FWP), Number of Leaves Per Plant(NLP), Stem Diameter(SD), Number of Branches Per Plant (NBP), Number of  Flower Per Spikes (NFPS) and  Flower Spike Length (FSL). The results showed that gyttja application at doses of 3%, significantly increased PH, SD, NBP, NFPS, and FSL, while FWP increased only at 2% gyttja application dose and decreased at the 3% dose.  The application of 280 mg kg-1 of nitrogen significantly increased (PH, FWP, NLP, NBP, NFPS and FSL). All parameters increased at (0-20 cm) soil depth, and the GD x SH x ND interaction had a significant effect on (SD, NLP, NFPS and FSL). These results suggest that adding of gyttja with nitrogen fertilizer to the calcareous and infertile soil will enhance the morphological attributes of plants.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


[1] A. Karaca, C. T. Oguz, and T. Nihal, “Effects of a Humic Deposit (Gyttja) on Soil Chemical and Microbiological Properties and Heavy Metal Availability,” Biol Fertil Soils 42: 585–592, 2006.
[2] W.A. Dick, “Influence of Long-Term Tillage and Crop Rotation Combinations on Soil Enzyme Activities,” Journal of SSSA. 48:569–574, 1984.
[3] F. J. Stevenson, “Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions,” 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, 1994.
[4] H. Kheyrodin, H. Antoun, “Effect of Tillage and Manure Application on Soil Microbial Biomass and Respiration and on Enzyme Activities,” WCSS, pp, 2144, 2002.
[5] S. Ural, and F. Yuksel, “Geotechnical Characterization of Lignite bearing Horizons in the Afsin-Elbistan Lignite Basin,” SE Turkey, Eng Geo 75:129–146, 2004.
[6] A.R. Demirkiran, A. Akkaya, M.F. Türkmener, M. C. Türkmener, and S. Akkaya, “Toprak Verimliliini Arttirmada Kullanilabilecek Alternatif Organik bir materyal: Gidya (Gyttja),” 5. Dünya Su Forumu, SulamaTuzlanma Toplantisi, Sanliurfa, Türkiye (Turkish).Bildiri PP, 159-168, 2008.
[7] H. Dikici, K. Saltali, S. Bingolbali, “Equilibrium and Kinetics Characteristics of Copper (II) Sorption on to Gyttja,” Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 84: 147–151, 2010.
[8] N. Tamer, and A. Karaca, “Gidya’nin Toprakta Enzim Aktiviteleri ile Kadmiyum Kapsami Üzerine Etkisi," A.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enst., Toprak Anabilim Dali, MSc Thesis, Ankara, Turkish, 2014.
[9] M. N. Rogers, “Snapdragons, In Introduction to Floriculture,” 2 nd Edition. (eds.): R. A. Larson. Academic Press, Inc. New York, pp, 93-112, 1992.
[10] R. Asghari, “Comparing the Effects of Growth Bed and Planting Density on the Growth and Flowering Characteristics of Snapdragon,” Agricultural Higher Education Center, Karaj, Iran. PP, 2305-6622, 2014.
[11] C. Y. Wang, J. E. Baker, R. E. Hardenburg, and M. Lieberman, “Effects of two Analogs of Rhizobitoxine and Sodium Benzoate on Senescence of Snapdragon,” Journal of Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 102: 517–520, 1977.
[12] E. J. Waltering, and W. G. Van Doorn, “Role of Ethylene in Senescence of Petals-Morphological and Taxonomical Relationship,” Journal of Exp. Bot. 39, 1605–1616, 1988.
[13] M. Serek, E. C. Sisler, and M. S. Reid, “Effects of 1-MCP on the Vase Life and Ethylene Response of Cut Flowers,” Plant Growth Regul. 16, 93–97, 1995.
[14] G. W. Thomas, “Soil pH and Acidity,” In D.L. Sparks (eds.) Method of Soil Analysis: Chemical Methods. Part 3. SSSA. Madison, WI. P, 475–491, 1996.
[15] D. W. Nelson, L.E. Sommers, “Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter,” In D.L. Sparks (eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA. Book Series Number 5, SSSA., Madison, WI, P, 961-1011, 1996.
[16] S. Kuo, “Phosphorus,” In D.L. Sparks (eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series Number 5, SSSA. Madison, WI, pp. 869 – 921, 1996.
[17] W. L. Lindsay, W. A. Norvell, “Development of a DTPA Micronutrient Soil Test for Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper,” Journal of SSSA. 42, 421–428, 1978.
[18] P. A. Helmke, D. L. Sparks, “Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, and Calcium,” In Sparks, D.L., (eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA. Series Number 5, Madison, WI, P, 551–574, 1996.
[19] R. H. Loeppert, D.L. Suarez, “Carbonate and Gypsum,” In D.L. Sparks (eds.) Method of Soil Analysis: Chemical Methods. Part 3. SSSA. Madison, WI, p, 437–475, 1996
[20] M. Benito, A. Masaguer, R. D. Antonio, and A. Moliner, “Use of Pruning Waste Compost as a Component in Soil Less Growing Media,” Bioresource Technology, Vol.96. 597-603, 2005.
[21] M. Kiran, J. Din, K. Waseem, M. S. Jilani, and M. Q. Khan, “Effect of Different Growing Media on the Growth and Development of Dahlia (Dahlia pinnata) Under the Agro-Climatic Condition of Dera Ismail Khan,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol.10, 4140-4143, 2007.
[22] T. Wang,and E. A. Konow, “Fertilizer Source and Medium Composition Growth of Moth Orchid,” Hortic Sci, 34: 515-520, 1999.
[23] A. T. Liopa, D. Chalikiopoulos, and A. Papasavvas, “Effect of Chitin on Growth and Chlorophyll Content of two Medicinal Plants,” Journal of Medical Plants Research, Vol.4, 499-508, 2010.
[24] M. A. Bashir, M. Ahmad, and M. A. Anjum, “Effect of Various Potting Media on Growth of Rooted Jojoba (Simmondsia Chinensis) Cuttings. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, Vol.9, 147-151, 2007.
[25] A. Riaz, M. Arshad, A. Younis, A. Raza, and M. Hameed, “Effect of Different Growing Media on the Growth and Flowering of Zinnia Elegans cv. Blue Point,” Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol.40, 1579-1585, 2008.