Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis Isolated from Some Intermediate Host in Kurdistan-Iraq

Abstract = 500 times | PDF = 232 times

Main Article Content

Abdullah Ahmed Hama Rostam Hama Zorab Fatima Mohammed Ali Awaz M. Salih Amer Abdullah Hassan

Abstract

Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis) is the larval stage infection of Taenia hydatigena, a common tapeworm of dogs and other Canidae, which has a wide range of intermediate hosts including sheep, goat, cattle, deer, camel, horse, human and other wild ruminants, the disease spreads through a contaminated water, soil and food with feces of infected dogs or other carnivores, T. hydatigena lives in the intestinal of the definitive host (carnivores) and excretes a huge number of eggs with feces daily. The present study conducted to determine the prevalence rate and molecular characterization of C. tenuicollis among sheep and goats in Sulaimani province. A total of 14088 slaughtered animals were inspected postmortem from the new Sulaimani abattoir comprise, which involves 13395 sheep and 693 goats. The selected cysts were preserved in 70% Ethanol for DNA extraction and molecular study,  The mt-CO1 gene was amplified with a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR product purified and DNA sequencing for reverse and forward strands was determined by a genetic analyzer, the obtained sequences aligned with the DNA sequences of T. hydatigena in Iran, Turkey and Palestine, which deposited in GenBank under the following accession number (JQ710588), (JN827307) and ( KM032284) respectively. The prevalence rate of C. tenuicollis was 2.63% in sheep and 2.58% in goats. This result shows no significant differences of C. tenuicollis between sheep and goats (p>0.05). The nucleotide sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) gene revealed that the amplified DNA fragment is belong to Taenia hydatigena and Echinococcus granulosus and the nucleotide sequences of T. hydatigena deposited in GenBank under accession number (MH638348). This finding concludes that the amplification of mt-CO1 gene cannot be depended on discriminate hydatid cyst and C. tenuicollis while the partial DNA sequences of mt-CO1 gene are significantly valuable to differentiate C. tenuicollis from hydatid cyst, which is completely different in the pathology and control.

Keywords

Cysticercus tenuicollis, Taenia hydatigena, mt-CO1, DNA, Molecular marker.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References

[1] T. Kassai. "Veterinary Helminthology," Butterworth-Heineman Publishing, Oxford, UK. 1999
[2] M. H. Rdfar, S. Tayalli, and M. Jalazadeh, "Prevalence and morphological characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysticerci) from sheep and goats in Iran," Vet. Archiv.75:469-476. 2005
[3] G. H. Michigan, Thin –necked Bladder warm, Cysticercosis. http:/www. Michigan DNR Wildlife Disease Laboratory. 2009
[4] K.C. Smith, T. J. Parkinson, S. E. Long, "Abattoir survey of acquired reproductive abnormalities in ewes," Vet. Rec., 144: 491-496. 1999
[5] E. J. L. Soulsby, “Helminths, arthropods, and protozoa of domesticated animals,” 7th ed. Baillir Tindall, London, pp.113. 1982
[6] OIE, "OIE Terrestrial Manual," Chap. 2.1.4. In: Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis, Paris, pp 175–189. 2008
[7] S. M. A. Abidi, W. A. Nazami, P. Khan, M. Ahmad, M. Irshadullah, "Biochemical characterization of Taenia hydatigena cysticerci from goats and pigs," Journal, Helminthology, 63, 333-337. 1989
[8] J. Kaufmann, "Parasitic infections of domestic animals," A diagnostic manual Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Schweiz. 1996
[9] R.C.A. Thompson, A. J. Lymbery, "Echinococcus and hydatid disease".1st ed. Wallingford.CAB International. 1995
[10] D. C. Blood, O. M. Radostitis, J. H. Arundle, C. C. Gay, "Veterinary medicine," 7th ed.Baillier Tindall, London.pp.608. 1989
[11] D. P. McManus, "Molecular discrimination of taeniid cestodes," Parasitology International, vol. 55, pp. 531–537. 2006
[12] L. M. N. Gonzalez, E. Villalobos, Montero “Differential molecular identification of Taeniid spp. and Sarcocystis spp. cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle,” Veterinary Parasitology, 142, 1-2, pp. 95–101. 2006.
[13] H. Budka, S. Buncic, P. Colin, J. D. Collin, C. Ducrot, J. Hope, J. Johnston, G. Klein, H. Kruse, E. Lucker, S. Magnino, A. Martinez-Lopez, R.. L. Maijala, C. Nguyen-The, “Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on a request from the Commission related on Revision of Meat Inspection Procedures for Lambs and Goats,” EFSA Journal, 54:1-49.2004.
[14] J. W. G. Leiper, “Animal parasites and their control Report to the government of Iraq,” Rome, F. A. O., No. 610. 1957
[15] P. B. Mathur, M. A. Karim, F. Al-Fathy, “Observation on the incidence of some important helminths in sheep in Northern Iraq-working Paper,” UNDP/FAO, Iraq, 71,542. 1974
[16] I. M. Al-Saqur, A. M. A. Al-Gorani, “Larval stages of cestodes in the Viscera of sheep”. Journal of Biology, Science, Research., 18: 33-41. 1987
[17] A. L. Molan, I. S Saed, “A survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths and Cestodes larva stage in goats and cow of Arbil province,” Journal of Agriculture and Water Resource, 2:105-114. 1988.
[18] H. AL-Mayali, “The incidence and pathology of Cysticercosis in sheep naturally infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis larvae,” College of Education University of Al-Qadisiya, 4:19- 35. 2005.
[19] N. M. Ghaffar, “Prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock slaughtered at Dohok abattoir of Kurdistan Region of Iraq,” M.Sc. Thesis. College of Veterinary, Medicine University of Dohuk. 2008
[20] J. Bowles, D. Blair, D.P. McManus “Genetic variants within the genus Echinococcus identified by mitochondrial DNA sequencing,” Molecular and Biochemistry, Parasitology 54, pp. 165–173. 1992
[21] D. Bhattacharya, A. K. Bera, B. C. Bera, A. Maity and S. K. Das “Genotypic characterization of Indian cattle, Buffalo and sheep isolate of E. granulosus,” Veterinary,Parasitology, 143; pp. 371-374. 2007.
[22] A. A. Hama “Comparison Study to Evaluate Efficiency of Three DNA Extraction Method from Hydatid Cyst,” Journal of Garmian University, 2 (special), 624-629, 2015.
[23] M. R. Nejad, M. Roshani, Lahmi and F.E. Mojarad “Evaluation of four DNA extraction methods for the detection of Echinococcus granulosus genotype,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, FBB., 4 (2), pp. 91-94, 2011.
[24] A. E. Utuk, F. C. Piskin, “Molecular detection and characterization of goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey,” Scientific World Journal, 962,732, 2012. doi:10.1100/2012/962732.
[25] I. M. Essa, S. A. Al-Azizz, “Studies on cysticercus tenuicollis collected from slaughtered sheep and goats in Basrah abattoir, Iraq,” Egyptian Journal of Experimental, Biology (Zool.),7(2):343 – 347,2011.
[26] A. A. Khudair, “Study on the epidemiology of the larval stage Cysticercus tenuicollis of the cestode Taenia hydatigena in sheep and goats,” M.Sc. Thesis, Baghdad University, College of Veterinary Medicine, pp. 58. 1998.
[27] R. H. Haddawee, I.M. Sulbi and Z.F. Abass “Prevalence of Cysticercus tenuicollis in slaughtered sheep and goats by season, sex, age, at Karbala abattoir, Iraq,” Scientific. Journal. Medical. Research. 2 (5): 52-56. 2018.
[28] I. M. Al-Saqur, A. M. A. Al-Gorani, “Larval stages of cestodes in the Viscera of sheep,” Journal of Biology Science and Research, 18: 33-41. 1987.
[29] H. S. Al-Bakri “Prevalence of Tenuicollosis Among Livestock Slaughtered at Ninevah,” vol. 2, pp. 30–39, 2012.
[30] OIE. “Cysticercosis, Manual of the standard of diagnostic test and vaccine,” OIE, terrestrial manual.2008.
[31] A. Lavikainen, V. Haukisalmi, G. Deksne, K. Holmala, M. Lejeune, M. Isomursu, P. Jokelainen, A. Näreaho, J. Laakkonen, E. P. Hoberg, A. Sukura, “Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland,” Parasitology, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 653–662, 2013.
[32] A. A. Hama, O. H. Shareef, “Morphological and morphometric study of Echinococcus granulosus (metacestode) in Sulaimani Province / Kurdistan,” Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research vol. 7684, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2016.
[33] Z. I. Hassan, A. A. Meerkhan, B. Boufana, A. A. Hama, B. D. Ahmed, W. M. S. Mero, S. Orsten, M. Interisano, E. Pozio, A. Casulli, “Two haplotype clusters of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in northern Iraq (Kurdistan region) support the hypothesis of a parasite cradle in the Middle East,” Acta Tropica, vol. 172, no. April, pp. 201–207, 2017.
[34] A. A. Hama. Z. I . Hassan, S. M. W. Mro, M Interisano, B. Boufana, A. Casulli, “A Morphologically Unusual Echinococcus granulosus (G1 Genotype) Cyst in a Cow from Kurdistan - Iraq,” Epidemiology Open Access, vol. s2, pp. 2–4, 2015.
[35] S. Rostami, R. Salavati, R. N. Beech, Z. Babaei, M. Sharbatkhori, M. R. Baneshi, E. Hajialilo, H. Shad, M. F. Harandi, “Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran,” Journal of Helmintholgy, 89 (2), pp. 150–157, 2015.
[36] A. A. Hama, W. M. S. Mero, and J. M. S. Jubrael, “First Report of Sheep Strain in Kurdistan-Iraq,” Second international conference. Bali (Indonesia), (4):.41–44.2012.
[37] W. M. S. Mero, J. M. S. Jubrael, A. A. Hama, “Prevalence of Hydatid Disease Among Slaughtered Animals in Slemani Province/ Kurdistan-Iraq,” Journal of University of Zakho 1, (2) pp. 1–5. 2013.