Demand side management using the internet of energy based on LoRaWAN technology

Abstract = 0 times | PDF = 43 times


Om-Kolsoom Shahryari Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam Shadi Shahryari


The smart grid, as a communication network, allows numerous connected devices such as sensors, relays and actuators to interact and cooperate with each other. An Internet-based solution for electricity that provides bidirectional flow of information and power is internet of energy (IoE) which is an extension of smart grid concept. A large number of connected devices and the huge amount of data generated by IoE and issues related to data transmission, process and storage, force IoE to be integrated by cloud computing. Furthermore, in order to enhance the performance and reduce the volume of transmitted data and process information in an acceptable time, fog computing is suggested as a layer between IoE layer and cloud layer. This layer is used as a local processing level that leads to reduction in data transmissions to the cloud. So, it can save energy consumption used by IoE devices to transmit data into cloud because of a long range, low power, wide area and low bit rate wireless telecommunication system which is called LoRaWAN. All devices in fog domain are connected by long range wide area network (LoRa) into a smart gateway.  The gateway which bridges fog domain and cloud, is introduced for scheduling devices/appliances by creating a priority queue which can perform demand side management dynamically. The queue is affected by not only the consumer importance but also the consumer policies and the status of energy resources.


Internet of Things, Internet of Energy, fog computing, cloud computing, LoRaWAN, microgrid, demand side management.


[1] “Gartner’s 2012 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies Identifies & quot: Tipping Point & quout; Technologies That Will Unlock Long- Awaited Technologies Scenarios”.
[2] F. Jalali, A. Vishwanath, J. De Hoog, and F. Suits, “Interconnecting Fog Computing and Microgrids for Greening IoT,” pp. 0–5, 2016.
[3] L. Atzori, A. Iera, and G. Morabito, “The Internet of Things: A survey,” Comput. Networks, vol. 54, no. 15, pp. 2787–2805, 2010.
[4] E. Borgia, “The Internet of Things vision: Key features, applications and open issues,” Internet Things\ Res. challenges Solut. vol. 54, pp. 1–31, 2014.
[5] “Bob Metcalfe’s First PowerPoint Ever: The Ethernet Inventor Unveils the "Enernet" | Xconomy.” .
[6] H. A. Gabbar, Smart energy grid engineering. 2017.
[7] World Energy Council, “World Energy Resources: 2013 survey,” 2013.
[8] A. Anvari-Moghaddam, “Global Warming Mitigation Using Smart Micro-Grids,” in Global Warming - Impacts and Future Perspective, B. R. Singh, Ed. INTECH, 2012, pp. 119-134.
[9] A. Q. Huang, M. L. Crow, G. T. Heydt, J. P. Zheng, and S. J. Dale, “The Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) System: The Energy Internet,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 133–148, Jan. 2011.
[10] G. Mokhtari, A. Anvari-Moghaddam, and G. Nourbakhsh, “Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements,” in Energy Management of Distributed Generation Systems, 1st ed., no. July, Dr. Eng. Lucian Mihet, Ed. InT, 2016, pp. 1–24.
[11] P. Releases and P. Releases, “Renewables to lead world power market growth to 2020,” 2015. [Online].Available: [Accessed: 13-Mar-2017].
[12] M. Parvizimosaed, F. Farmani, and A. Anvari-Moghaddam, “Optimal energy management of a micro-grid with renewable energy resources and demand response,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 31–48, 2013.
[13] A. Anvari-Moghaddam, H. Monsef, A. Rahimi-Kian, J. M. Guerrero, and J. C. Vasquez, “Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response,” in IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, 2015, pp. 1–6.
[14] M. Signorini, “Towards an Internet of Trust,” 2015.
[15] A. Ghasemkhani, H. Monsef, A. Rahimi-Kian, and A. Anvari- Moghaddam, “Optimal Design of a Wide Area Measurement System for Improvement of Power Network Monitoring Using a Dynamic Multi-Objective Shortest Path Algorithm,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–12, 2015.
[16] P. Scott, “The emerging technologies,” in California Management Review, vol. 45, no. April, 2005, pp. 2–6.
[17] M. A. Al Faruque and K. Vatanparvar, “Energy Management-as-a- Service over Fog Computing Platform,” IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 161–169, 2016.
[18] M. Aazam and E.-N. Huh, “Fog Computing and Smart Gateway Based Communication for Cloud of Things,” in 2014 International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud, 2014, pp. 464– 470.
[19] F. Bonomi, R. Milito, J. Zhu, and S. Addepalli, “Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of Things,” Proc. first Ed. MCC Work. Mob. Cloud Comput. pp. 13–16, 2012.
[20] M. Chiang and T. Zhang, “Fog and IoT: An Overview of Research Opportunities,” IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 4662, no. c, pp. 1–1, 2016.
[21] K. Shahryari, A. Anvari-Moghadam, “Demand side management using the internet of energy based on fog and cloud computing”, International Conference on internet of things, and IEEE green computing and communications and IEEE Syber, 2017.
[22] U. Raza, P. Kulkami, M. Sooriabandara, “Low power wide area network: an overview”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 2, 2017, pp. 855-873.
[23] A. Rahman, M. Suryanegara, “The Development of IoT LoRa: A Performance Evaluation on LoS and Non-LoS Environment at 915MHz ISM Frequency
”, International Conference of signals and systems, Sanur, Indonesia, 2017.
[24] Cisco Systems, “Fog Computing and the Internet of Things: Extend the Cloud to Where the Things Are,” Www.Cisco.Com, p. 6, 2016.
[25] A. Augustin, J. Yi, T. Clausen, W. M. Townsley, “A study of LoRa: Long range & Low power networks for the internet of things”, Sensors, 16(9), 2016.
[26] F. Sforza, “Communications system,” March 2013, uS Patent 8,406,275. [Online]. Available:
[27] A. Anvari-Moghaddam, AmjadSeifi, “A Comprehensive Study on Future Smart Grids: Definitions, Strategies and Recommendations,” J. North Carolina Acad. Sci. vol. 127. No. 1, pp. 28-34, 2011.
[28] J. Ekanayake, K. Liyanage, J. Wu, A. Yokoyama, and N. Jenkins, Smart Grid: Technologies and Applications. 2012.